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P O L I T I C A L L A W ( A D M I N I S T R A T I V E L AW) REVIEWER & MEMORY AID AID ATENEO CENTRAL BAR OPERATIONS 2001 Louie, Carrie, Evelyn, Thel, Gem, Ronald Powers of Ad!"!s#r$#!%e Ae"'!es 1. Quasi-le Quasi-legisl gislativ ative e power power / Power Power of subordina subordinate te legislat legislation ion 2. Quasi-ju Quasi-judici dicial al power/P power/Powe owerr of adjudi adjudicati cation on 3. Determina Determinative tive powers powers (ote!"en (ote!"enator ator eptali eptali #on$ales #on$ales calls calls t%em incidental powers& powers & Def!"!#!o" of *$s!+,e!s,$#!%e -ower 't is t%e aut%orit delegated b t%e law-ma)ing bod to t%e administrative bod to adopt rules and regulations intended to carr out t%e provisions of a law and implement legislative polic. D!s#!"'#!o"s .e#wee" *$s!+,e!s,$#!%e -ower $"d ,e!s,$#!%e -ower 1. *+#'"* *+#'"*, ,'+ '+ power power involves involves t%e discreti discretion on to determi determine ne what t%e t%e law s%all s%all be. Q,"'legislative power onl involves t%e discretion to determine how t%e t%e law s%all be enforced. 2. *+#' *+#'"* "*, ,'+ '+ powe powerr 0, 0, be dele delega gate ted. d. Q," Q,"''-le legi gisl slat ativ ive e powe powerr 0, 0, be delegated. Tes#s of De,e$#!o" ($--,!es #o #/e -ower #o -ro*,$#e $d!"!s#r$#!%e re*,$#!o"s ) 1. COMPLETENESS COMPLETENESS test . %is means t%at t%e law must be complete in all its terms and conditions conditions w%en it leaves t%e legislature so t%at w%en it reac%es t%e delegate delegate it will %ave not%ing to do but to enforce it. 2. S!!"C"ENT S!!"C"ENT ST#N$#R$ ST#N$#R$ test% %e law must must offer a sufficie sufficient nt standard to specif t%e t%e limits limits of t%e deleg delegate ates s aut%o aut%orit rit anno announ unce ce t%e legisl legislati ative ve polic polic and and speci specif f t%e t%e conditions under w%ic% it is to be implemented. Def!"!#!o" of *$s!+*d!'!$, Power 't is t%e power of administrative aut%orities to ma)e determinations of facts in t%e performance of t%eir official duties and to appl t%e law as t%e construe it to t%e facts so found. %e e4ercise of t%is power is onl incidental to t%e main function of administrative aut%orities w%ic% is t%e enforcement of t%e law. De#er!"$#!%e Powers 1.EN#&L"NG 1.EN#&L"NG powers %ose t%at P+56' t%e doing of an act w%ic% t%e law underta)es to regulate and would be unlawful wit%out government approval. +4. 'ssuance of licenses to engage in a particular business. 2.$"RECT"NG 2.$"RECT"NG powers %ose t%at involve t%e corrective powers of public utilit commissions powers of assessment under t%e revenue laws reparations under public utilit laws and awards under wor)mens compensa compensation tion laws laws and powers powers of abstract abstract determin determinatio ation n suc% as definiti definition-v on-valua aluation tion classification and fact finding 3. $"SPENS"NG powers +4emplified b t%e aut%orit to e4empt from or rela4 a general pro%ibition or aut%orit to relieve from an affirmative dut. 'ts difference from licensing power is t%at dispensing power sanctions a deviation from a standard. 7. SMM#R' powers %ose t%at appl compulsion or force against person or propert to effectuate a legal purpose wit%out a judicial warrant to aut%ori$e suc% action. suall wit%out notice and %earing. +4. ,batement of nuisance summar destraint lev of propert of delin8uent ta4 paers
P O L I T I C A L L A W ( A D M I N I S T R A T I V E L AW) REVIEWER & MEMORY AID AID ATENEO CENTRAL BAR OPERATIONS 2001 Louie, Carrie, Evelyn, Thel, Gem, Ronald 9. E("T#&LE powers %ose t%at pertain to t%e power to determine t%e law upon a particular state of facts. 't refers to t%e rig%t to and must consider and ma)e proper application of t%e rules of e8uit. +4. Power to appoint a receiver power to issue injunctions !"ds of Ad!"!s#r$#!%e Re*,$#!o"s D'"'0'" 1. 0apacit t%at administrative agenc is acting in 2. ;%at administrative agenc is doing 3.
't supplem supplement ents s t%e statute statute b filling in t%e details *egislative regulations %ave t%e force and effecr of law imme immedi diat atel el upon upon goin going g into effect. "uc% is accorded b t%e courts or b e4pr e4pres ess s prov provis isio ion n of statute.
't sas w%at t%e statute means 6erel persuasive/ 5eceived b t%e courts wit% muc% respect but not accorded wit% finalit
Re*!s!#es of $ V$,!d Ad!"!s#r$#!%e Re*,$#!o" 1. 'ts promulg promulgatio ation n must be aut%o aut%ori$e ri$ed d b t%e legisla legislature ture.. 2. 't must be wit%in wit%in t%e scope scope of of t%e aut%orit aut%orit given given b t%e legislature. legislature. 3. 't must must be promulgated promulgated in accordance accordance wit% wit% t%e prescribed procedure. procedure. 7. 't mus mustt be reas reason onab able le Need for Pre%!o*s No#!'e $"d 3e$r!" 1. General Rule! ,dministrative rules of #++5,* application do re8uire previous notice and %earing. 2. Exception! ;%en t%e legislature itself re8uires it and mandates t%at t%e regulation s%all be based on certain facts as determined at an appropriate investigation. 3. 'f t%e regulati regulation on is in effect effect a settlement settlement of a controvers controvers betwee between n specific specific parties parties it is considered an administrative adjudication re8uiring notice and %earing. Pres'r!.!" of R$#es 't can be eit%er! 1. LEG"SL#T")E 'f t%e rules/rates are meant to appl to all enterprises of a given )ind t%roug%out t%e countr. o prior notice and %earing is re8uired. 2. (#S"*+$"C"#L 'f t%e rules and rates imposed appl e4clusivel to a particular particular part based upon a finding of fact. Prior notice and %earing is re8uired. Re*!ree"# of P*.,!'$#!o" #dministrative #dministrative Reulations Reulations that MST -e pu-lished pu-lished.. 1. ,dminis ,dministrati trative ve regulatio regulations ns of #++5,* #++5,* applic applicatio ation. n. 2. ,dminis ,dministrati trative ve regulati regulations ons w%ic% w%ic% are P+,* P+,* in nature nature.. #dministrative #dministrative reulations reulations that do NOT NEE$ NEE$ to -e P&L"S/E$. P&L"S/E$. 1. 'nte 'nterpr rpret etati ative ve regu regulat latio ions ns 2. 'nternal 'nternal rules and regulations regulations governing governing t%e personnel personnel of of t%e administrative administrative agenc agenc..
P O L I T I C A L L A W ( A D M I N I S T R A T I V E L AW) REVIEWER & MEMORY AID AID ATENEO CENTRAL BAR OPERATIONS 2001 Louie, Carrie, Evelyn, Thel, Gem, Ronald 3. *ette *etters rs of instru instructi ction on issue issued d b admin administ istrat rative ive superi superiors ors conce concerni rning ng guide guidelin lines es to be followed b t%eir subordinates. (anada (anada v. uvera& S-e'!$, Re*!s!#es of $ V$,!d Ad!"!s#r$#!%e Re*,$#!o" w!#/ $ PENAL s$"'#!o" 1. %e law itself must must ma)e violation of t%e administrative administrative regulation regulation punis%able. punis%able. 2. %e law itself itself must impose impose and specif t%e penalt for for t%e violation violation of t%e t%e regulation. regulation. 3. %e regulati regulation on must be publis% publis%ed. ed. Re*!s!#es for Pro-er E4er'!se of *$s!+*d!'!$, Power 1. :uri :urisd sdic icti tion on 2. Due pro proce cess ss Ad!"!s#r$#!%e D*e Pro'ess 5 Re*!ree"#s 1. 2. 3. 7.
5ig%t 5ig%t to otice otice be be it actua actuall or cons construc tructive tive 5easonable 5easonable opportunit opportunit to to appear appear and defend %is rig%ts rig%ts and to introduce introduce witnesses witnesses 'mpartia 'mpartiall tribuna tribunall wit% compe competen tentt jurisdict jurisdiction ion
E4'e-#!o"s #o #/e No#!'e $"d 3e$r!" Re*!ree"# 1. 2. 3. 7. 9. =. >. ?. @.
rgen rgenc c of of imme immedia diate te acti action on enta entative tivenes ness s of t%e admini administrat strative ive action action 5ig%t 5ig%t was was previou previousl sl offere offered d but but not claim claimed ed "ummar "ummar abateme abatement nt of a nuisanc nuisance e per per se Preventive Preventive suspension suspension of a public servant facing administrative administrative c%arges c%arges Padloc)ing Padloc)ing of of filt% filt% restaurants/t%eate restaurants/t%eaters rs s%owing s%owing obscene movies 0ancellation 0ancellation of a passport passport of of a person soug%t for criminal criminal prosecution prosecution "ummar distraint and lev of properties properties of a delin8uent delin8uent ta4paer ta4paer 5eplace 5eplacement ment of of a tempor temporar ar or or acting acting appoi appointee ntee
*es#!o"s Re%!ew$.,e o" *d!'!$, Re%!ew5 1. (uestions o0 !#CT %e general rule is t%at courts will not disturb t%e findings of administrative agencies acting wit%in t%e parameters of t%eir own competence so long as suc% findings are supported b substantial evidence. A reason of t%eir special )nowledge e4pertise and e4perience t%e courts ordinaril accord respect if not finalit to factual findings of administrative tribunals. 1% (uestion o0 L#2 ,dministrative ,dministrative decision ma be appealed appealed to t%e courts independentl independentl of legislative permission. 't ma be appealed even against legislative pro%ibition because t%e judiciar cannot be deprived of its in%erent power to review all decisions on 8uestions of law. Do'#r!"e of 6!"$,!#7 0ourts are reluctant to interfere wit% action of an administrative agenc prior to its completion or finalit t%e reason being t%at absent a final order or decision power %as not been full and finall e4ercised and t%ere can usuall be no irreparable %arm. 'nterlocutor order affecting affecting t%e merits of a controversB Preserve status status 8uo E3CEPT"ONS. 'nterlocutor pending furt%er action b t%e administrative agencB +ssential to t%e protection of t%e rig%ts asserted from t%e injur t%reatenedB fficer assumes to act in violation of t%e 0onstitution and ot%er lawsB rder not reviewable in an ot%er waB rder made in e4cess of power
P O L I T I C A L L A W ( A D M I N I S T R A T I V E L AW) REVIEWER & MEMORY AID AID ATENEO CENTRAL BAR OPERATIONS 2001 Louie, Carrie, Evelyn, Thel, Gem, Ronald Do'#r!"e of Pr!$r7 *r!sd!'#!o" 1. %is doctrine doctrine states states t%at courts courts cannot cannot or will not not determine determine a controvers controvers w%ic% w%ic% re8uires t%e e4pertis e4pertise e speciali speciali$ed $ed s)ills s)ills and )nowled )nowledge ge of t%e proper proper administ administrativ rative e bodies bodies because tec%nical matters of intricate 8uestions of fact are involved. 2. 5elie 5elieff must must first first be obtai obtaine ned d in an admin administ istrat rative ive procee proceedin ding g befor before e a remed remed will will be supplied b t%e court even t%oug% t%e matter is wit%in t%e proper jurisdiction of a court.
Do'#r!"e of Pr!or Resor# ;%en a claim originall cogni$able in t%e courts involves issues w%ic% under a regulator sc%eme are wit%in t%e special competence of an administrative agenc agenc judicial proceedings will be suspended pending t%e referral of t%ese issues to t%e administrative bod for its view. ote! ote! %e doctrine doctrines s of primar primar jurisdictio jurisdiction n and prior prior resort resort %ave been considere considered d to be interc%angeable.
Do'#r!"e of E4/$*s#!o" of Ad!"!s#r$#!%e Reed!es 1. nde nderr t%is t%is doct doctri rine ne an admi admini nist stra rati tive ve deci decisi sion on must must firs firstt be appe appeal aled ed to t%e t%e administrative superiors up to t%e %ig%est level before it ma be elevated to a court of justice for for review. review. 2. 5easons ! a. to enable enable t%e administ administrati rative ve superiors superiors to correct correct t%e t%e errors committe committed d b t%eir subordinates. b. courts courts s%ould s%ould refrain from disturbi disturbing ng t%e findings findings of administ administrati rative. ve. bodies bodies in deference to t%e doctrine of separation of powers. c. courts courts s%ould s%ould not be saddled saddled wit% t%e review of administ administrati rative ve cases cases d. judicial judicial review review of adminis administrati trative ve cases cases is usuall usuall effecte effected d t%roug% t%roug% special special civil civil actions actions w%ic% w%ic% are are availa available ble onl onl i0 their their is no other other plain, plain, speed speedy y and and ade4uate remedy . 3. +4ceptions a. w%en t%e 8uestion raised is purely leal, involves involves constitutional constitutional 4uestions 4uestions b. w%en t%e administrative administrati ve bod is in estopped c. w%en act complained of is patently is patently illeal illeal d. w%en t%ere is urent need 0or 5udicial intervention e. w%en claim involved is small f. w%en irrepara-le damae is damae is involved g. w%en t%ere is no other plain, speedy , ade4uate remed %. w%en stron pu-lic interest is is involved '. w%en t%e subject of controvers is private land land j. in 4uo warranto proceedings warranto proceedings ). ;%en ;%en t%e t%e admin administ istrat rative ive reme remed d is is permissive, concurrent l. utter disreard o0 due process m. long-con long-continu tinued ed and unreason unreasonable able delay n. amount amount involved involved is relative relativel l small small o. w%en w%en no administ administrativ rative e review review is provid provided ed p. respond respondent ent is a depa departme rtment nt secreta secretar r (D05' (D05'+ + < Q,*'< Q,*'<'+D '+D P*'' P*''0,* 0,* ,#+0C ,* ,*+5 +5 +# D05'+& D05'+& "ubstantial evidence defined to mean not necessaril preponderant proof as re8uired in ordinar civil cases but suc% )ind of relevant evidence w%ic% a reasonable mind mig%t accept as ade8uate to support a conclusion.