Notes relating to the first module of the CAPE Caribbean Studies syllabusFull description
caribbean studies notesFull description
Caribbean Studies Module 1 Notes
CAPE Caribbean Studies Module 1 Notes
caribbean studies, sbaFull description
Partial fulfillment of CAPEFull description
Partial fulfillment of CAPEFull description
information on mass media for Caribbean development for the subject Caribbean studies
solutions to Caribbean studies paper 1(2016)
Internal Assessment to investigate the impact of Social Networking Sites on the students' academic performance. This study was carried out at the Antigua State College.Full description
Caribbean HistoryFull description
CAPE Caribbean Studies P1 2017
P1 2015 AnswersFull description
CAPE Caribbean Studies 2016 P2
CAPE Caribbean Studies 2016 Multiple Choice
MODULE ONE LOCATION AND DEFINITION OF THE CARIBBEAN REGION Definition of the Caribbean Region Geographical This describes the area washed by the Caribbean Sea and is often described as the Caribbean Basin. It would therefore include most of the islands of the Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles as well as the mainland territories in Central America (Costa Rica, Belize, Panama, Honduras) and Northern South America such as Columbia and Venezuela. The common link here is the Caribbean Sea. Geological There are deep seated structural features of Caribbean geology which also identifies commonalities. It is the area that is defined by the Caribbean Plate and which experiences similar tectonic, seismic and volcanic features and processes. Historical It describes the area that saw the impact of European colonization, slavery, indentureship and the plantation system. this refers to all the territories so that one way of defining the Caribbean is to identify those countries that experienced the rule of specific European countries. Thus the Caribbean may be defined as being broken up into the English, French, Dutch and Spanish speaking countries and territories. Political In the Caribbean at least three types of governmental systems are found. They include Independent States, Associated States and Colonial Dependencies.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIETY Society Society is a collection of people occupying a defined geographical area over a long period of time. Society in the Caribbean is often considered the boundaries of a nation state. The sociological understanding of the term society stresses the interaction amongst its members. Culture Culture is widely regarded as the way of life for a people.It is often defined as the learned behavior of a people. Culture is sub divided into material and nonmaterial culture. Material culture includes the products of people such as their styles of architecture, types of food preparation, economic organizations and their forms of technology. Non-material culture refers to the cherished values, ideas, beliefs and ideas. Cultural values refer to a set of rankings people in a society confer on to a myriad of social behaviors. Norms are standards of behavior that are culturally accepted and emanate from the realm of culturalvalues that we share. CHARACTERISTICS OF CARIBBEAN SOCIETY AND CULTURE Cultural Diversity Cultural Diversity is the existence of sub-cultures within a main culture or different cultures in a larger area such as the Caribbean and the US. Social Stratification This is the social arrangement of society based on criteria such as race, wealth and education. Social Mobility This is the movement, usually of individuals or groups, from one social position to another within thesocially stratified system in any society. Hybridization This is the admixture of cultural traits and exchange of values from other cultures. Cultural Erasure This is where traits or practices of a culture are no longer practiced over time. Cultural Retention This may occur as a result of the deliberate desire to keep traditions alive and help some groups to preserve their sense of identity. It is also defined as the process where past cultural practices are practiced presently. Cultural Renewal This is where cultural practices that were once done are being revived or the fashioning of new practices based on those of the past.
IMPACT OF HISTORICAL PROCESSES Migratory Movements The ancestors of the pre-Colombian Amerindians may have come out of North Eastern Asia across the frozen Bering Straits to Alaska during the fourth Ice Age some fifteen to twenty thousand years ago. The nomads wandered southwards through North, Central and South America evolving distinct physical and cultural characteristics. Over hundreds of years the Amerindians moved and some settled. Some of the familiar names are Aztec, Maya and Inca. The Orinoco Basin and the Guianas in South America were the original homeland of the Caribs and Arawaks who migrated northwards through the Lesser Antilles to the Greater Antilles. By 1492, the main Arawak groups which inhabited the West Indies were the Lucayans in the Bahamas and Tainos in Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti and Puerto Rico. The greatest Amerindian civilization flourished on the mainland of Mesoamericas and South America. It is perhaps the constant movement of people into and out of the Caribbean that led Richardson to refer to a regional migration tradition. This propensity to migrate, he argued, took off immediately after emancipation in the 1830’s when thousands of men and women most notably from smaller islands, migrated to Trinidad and British Guiana in search of higher wages and better conditions. By 1845, more than 10 000 migrants from small West Indian Islands had travelled to Trinidad and over 8000 others had gone to British Guiana. Many of these emigrants eventually returned home displaying the fruits of their labour. This movement continued from a long time as a feature of Caribbean people, that is, to move from small islands of the Eastern Caribbean to larger ones in a complex inter-island migration. Encomienda System (System of Unfree Labor) Hispaniola was the first test ground for Spain’s Indian Policy. Amerindians had to present Columbus with a certain amount of gold each week which were measured in ingots (a calabash full of gold dust)He made them dive for pearls. Amerindians drowned because they were not accustomed to diving so deep. Chiefs were hunted and killed by Spanish dogs if they did not adhere to he rules. Nicholas De Ovando, a Spanish Governor was appointed by the crown to oversee the encomienda system. The rich Spanish (encomendero) gained jurisdiction over land and they had Amerindians working for them. Nicholas De Ovando had to protect the Amerindians but he did not do so.Many Amerindians died of starvation. In 1510, in Hispaniola, the first Dominican friar arrived to help the Amerindians. Father Antonio Montesinos on Advent Sunday in 1511 addressed Spanish telling
them they were “hypocritical and warped.”The Law of Burgos (1512-1513) sought to alienate the tension between Spanish and Amerindians. Bartolome de Las Casas was a former encomendero who had a religious epiphany and freed the Amerindians. He went to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to look to Africa for labor since it was cheap and easily accessible. The audienca moderated the amount of tribute the slaves had to pay and they functioned like a High Court. (1531-1532)The New Laws of the Indies (1542) dealt with the prohibition of enslavement of Indians and prevention of doing personal services for encomenderos. By 1560, encomienda system was partially banned as some encomenderos still practiced the system. By the second half of the 16th Century, there was a virtual genocide of the Amerindians. Repartimiento and Yanconaje Repartimiento was primarily practiced in Central Mexico and Andean Highlands. Adult males had to do rotation work. In New Spain, the Repartimiento was called Mita. There was an encomendero who had to oversee the work usually a rich Spanish. Yanaconaje was practiced in Peru and Bolivia. African Slaves African slaves were accessible, stronger, healthier, less prone to diseases and had knowledge of cultivation. The journey of slave ships from Africa to the West Indies (Middle Passage) was wrought with horror,waste of human life and was characterized by high mortality rate. ChattelAfrican slaves were treated as commodities. Asiento- a contract between a company and the Spanish Crown. All forms of colonial labor depended on servitude/ coercion Economics was the start and end of slavery. Plantation Society Race, color, status, occupation, ethnicity affected the social pyramid of the plantation society. The plantation society is a capitalist type of enterprise in which land is treated like a commodity. Indentureship Indentured laborers were assigned contracts in which they were paid wages to work for a specified period of time. After the contracts expired they were given the
option to return to their homelands or to receive a plot of land. Many chose to stay. Indentureship was supposed to differ from slavery; however, the servants were treated as harshly as the slaves. Caribbean Reponse to Oppression Encomienda Amerindians used bows and arrows with poisoned tips.Infanticide and Group or Individual Suicide. If caught, they were burnt to the stake Slavery They were intentionally idle on the plantation (Go Slow) They destroyed valuable machinery Marronage – Maroons were the runaway slaves who established communities in the hilly terrain of many areas of the Americas. Marronage was not always an option in island communities but existed in large territories where the hilly terrain was ideal for settlements. The most famous Maroons in the Caribbean are found in Suriname, in the Blue Mountains and Cockpit Country of Jamaica and in Las Villas in Cuba. They were successful at defending their liberty and in 1739 the British were forced to sign a treaty of peace. Movement towards Independence Foster Commission (1935) in Trinidad and Moyne Commission (1938) looked at the economic situation in each country. Universal Adult Suffrage – the right to vote In the 1930s political parties were formed. Entrepreneurial activities- shop-keeping and saving society (sou-sou) IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHIC PHENOMENA Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics is the study of the movement of plates and their resultant landforms. The crust is made up of two plates, the Continental or Oceanic and they move or float on molten rock. Types of Plates Margins Convergent Plate Margin At these margins two plates move towards each other and it is called a destructive plate margin. At convergent plate margin, either a collision zone or a subduction zone may be formed. A collision zone occurs where two continental plates collide forming fold mountains. E.g. Eurasian and Indian plates collide to form the Himalayan Mountains. A subduction zone occurs when an oceanic plate collides with continental plate and the denser oceanic plate is forced under. At a convergent plate margin volcanoes and earthquakes occur. E.g. the eastern end of the
Caribbean Plate along the line of the Lesser Antilles and the North American plate and the Caribbean plate. Divergent Plate Margin At this plate margin, the plates move away from each other and is called a constructive plate margin anew crust is formed. This results in gentle volcanism and earthquake activity. Magma is forced upwards and new crust is created. E.g. the Caribbean and North American plates move away from each other to form the Cayman Island Ridge.
At this plate margin, the plates slide past each other with converging or diverging. It is also called a fault. Volcanic activity does not occur here; instead only seismic activity is experienced. E.g. the Cayman Island Trench. Volcanoes A volcano is an opening in the earth’s crust through which molten rock, ash, steam etc are ejected. In the Caribbean: Mt. Pelee-Martinque Erupted in 1902, and killed 30 000 people. A nueeardente (glowing cloud filled with super heated ash and gases) descended on the village and thus suffocated the residents. Earthquakes Earthquakes are sudden earth movements or vibrations in the earth’s crust. They are caused by the development of faults in the crust which result from collision of plates or from the movement of molten rocks below or within the crust or the sudden release of stress that has slowly built up along the fault plane at a transform plate margin. The focus is the point at which the earthquake originated. The Epicenter is the point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus. Risks involved with Earthquakes Tremors The ground vibrates during an earthquake. Waves travel outwards from side to side. Walls may crack and windows may break. Utility poles fall and buildings collapse. Ground Fissures The ground splits and cracks. Liquefaction Liquefaction is the process whereby reclaimed land or loose sediments behave like a liquid during an earthquake.
Indonesian Earthquake and Tsunami (2004) Occurred off the island of Sumatra Upward displacement of 10mTsunami travelled at speed of 800km/h Hurricanes A hurricane is a low pressure system formed in warm waters. All hurricanes develop over the sea. They do not develop close to the equator as they require a surface temperature of 27 degrees. Before a hurricane Calm weather, high humidity and strong swells As hurricane approaches, cloud cover builds up and winds intensify During a hurricane Wind strongest near the eye of the storm Eye: calm, down draught of warm air Wind drops suddenly after eye passes and starts again After a hurricane Wind speeds gradually drop Heavy rain may continue Wind damage 40% increase in wind speed doubles the destructive power Wave damage Waves may reach 8m high May be severe beach erosion Marine life damaged or killed Corals damaged Coastal structures damaged Ships and boats at risk Storm surge Near eye of major hurricane sea levels are several metres above normal Strengthened as approaches shore Flooding Flooding by slowly rising waters (Caroni, Barrackpore) Landslide Triggered where steep hills are sodden with rain Hurricane Ivan in Grenada ( September 2004) 80-90% houses damaged or destroyed5000-6000 slept in shelters Power lines brought down. Water supply contaminated Recently built national stadium destroyed. Most schools damaged90% nutmeg trees destroyed90% trees fell Roads blocked and airport closedLandline phone and radio transmitters down1700 hotel rooms, 300 available
Prison roof blown off Soils
Soil is the uppermost layer of loose material on top of the rock which makes up the surface of the earth. It consists of tiny articles derived from the broken down fragment of rock together with humus. Soil erosion Soil may be eroded by: 1. Soil compaction by grazing animals and machinery 2. Deforestation 3. Over grazing 4. over use of artificial fertilizer 5. Monoculture 6. Slash and burn cultivation 7. Forest fires 8. Bad agricultural practices Soil conservation Soil may be conserved by: 1. Terracing 2 . M u l c h i n g 3. Wind breaks 4 . C o n t o u r p l o u gh i n g / d r a i n a g e 5. Crop rotation 6. Canopy cover 7. Cover cropping 8. Intercropping 9. Reforestation Coral Reefs How are coral reefs formed? 1.The main frame of the reef is built up by coral polyps whish are small soft bodied creatures which use calcium carbonate dissolved in water to build up a hard casing of limestone to protectthemselves.2.These tiny polyps live in colonies or large groups.3.Layer after layer of limestone is added to the colony as new polyps build on top of the structure.4 .Other organisms also live on the reef and these creatures produce hard skeletons which help to build up the structure of the reef around the framework of the coral.5.Only the surface layer of the reef is made up of live coral.6.Between the reef and the shore, there is usually a shallow lagoon. The floor of this is made up of sand, dead coral and rubble.7.On the seaward side, the reef slopes down more steeply. At the base of this slope there will also be an accumulation of sand and rubble. Conditions in which coral reefs grow
1. The temperature of the water should be between 21 and 30 degrees Celsius. Thus is why there are few coral reefs outside the tropics or in places where there are cold sea currents. 2. Corals mat be killed where the water is too hot. 3. Sunlight must be able to penetrate where the coral is growing. Corals grow only in fairly shallow water. The exact depth depends on the clarity of the water. 4. Coral grow where the water has the right amount of salt. Few reefs are near the mouth of rivers. 5. Corals need to grow in clean water. Muddy water damages coral because it shuts out sunlight and because silt particles choke the coral polyps. Organic growth of other organisms are promoted
Imports from Canada, US and Europe •Foods- fresh and packaged •Electronic items •Motor vehicles •Computers •Appliances •Films, videos, cable T.V. •Music, entertainment •Books, magazines, software •Clothes •Consultants, experts, advisors Exports from Caribbean •Oil • Natural gas •Foods-fresh, packaged and agricultural produce •Fish •Clothes •Music, Carnival costumes, songs, artists, performers •Migrants, students, tourists
The Westminster System The government is chosen by the democratically elected Lower House. The head of government is the Prime Minister who leads the Cabinet which is responsible for the Lower House. An opposition exists, led by the leader of the party with the second largest number of votes in the Lower House. There is a career public service which impartially serves the government of the day. The armed services are outside politics and act on the instructions of the government. The rule of law prevails with an independent judiciary subject to the constitution. Impact of Caribbean Cultural Practices Abroad 1 .No t t i n g Hi l l C a r n i v a l - Un i t e d Ki n g d o m 2.Caribana Festival- Toronto 3.Brooklyn Labor Day 4.Point Fortin Day- New York All met with resistance in the beginning but then tourism became enticing Music •Soca, reggae, calypso •Chutney, Tassa •Steelpan (Pan European Association responsible for creating a network to promote the development of pan in Europe.) Impact of Rastafarianism Rastafarianism evolved as a cult in Jamaica. The cult perfected in 1930’s and leaders such as Marcus Garvey stimulated this movement with their belief in racial dignity. Rastafarians form tribes and live in communes with each tribe having a leader who possesses power over all other tribe members. Within the Rastafarian religion women are regarded as inferior to men and exist only for their pleasure. Often times, the women folk are seen walking behind their men and never in front or even to the side. This has evolved in modern times where the women are treated equally.
How Caribbean Art and Culture contribute to the Development of our Caribbean
Reflect our everyday experiences of physical and social environments e.g. Derek Walcott (St. Lucia)intertwines the physical aspect of the Caribbean in his poems Represent important aspects of our history e.g. Bajan writer George Lamming wrote a book the Pleasures of Exile (1960) where he writes about the struggle to reclaim our voice with reference to European colonizers and Sculpture “Negro Aroused” by Jamaican sculptor Edna Manley (1935) showed workers from Jamaica rising from oppression Economic development e.g. Carnival, Crop Over festival However in order to promote economic development we have to use modern technology namely an international reggae festival launched on the internet.-What are some of the dangers we face when we begin to adapt our arts and culture to make them attractive to persons outside of the Caribbean?-How might packaging them appropriately to suit these new technologies change their character?-Will we lose important that make them our own?-What sorts of policies might Caribbean governments need to put in place to ensure that while the arts and popular culture are properly developed we also protect what they reflect of our actual heritage?-How can we ensure that our artists and cultural entrepreneurs develop skills that will provide them with employment and help them to survive and prosper economically?