1. Background Study In 2009, Malaysia‟s industry is poised to enjoy a substantial expansion in the green building materials sector with its Green Building Index. The climate change and volatile energy prices have been pushing Malaysia towards a green building approach. Due to these factors, green building has been slowly introduced by the Malaysia‟s government as the new standard for public and commercial projects (Oxford Business Group, 2011). For instance, four public and commercial buildings in Malaysia have obtained certificates for US Green Building Council‟s leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) from the USBC, a leading auditor of green buildings. Certified facilities include multinational Steelcase‟s new services headquarters in Kuala Lumpur, and Bangunan Lestari Kumpulan Emkay building in Cyberjaya. Furthermore, documentation for LEED certification was being prepared for an additional 30 Malaysian projects as in July 2011 (Oxford Business Group, 2011). „Going green‟ is a new approach for Malaysians as Malaysia has only a small share of green buildings and its LEED projects only comprise 0.75% of the world‟s total outside the US. For long-term benefits, the government has come out with effort by offering five-year tax incentives for green building owners, and n exemption from taxes on the first sale of the property (Oxford Business Group, 2011). A Green building focuses on increasing the efficiency of resources such as energy, water, and materials while reducing building impact on human health and the environment during the building‟s lifecycle, through better design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal. Green Buildings should be designed and operated to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on its surroundings (Green Building Index, 2013).
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1.1 Green Building and Sustainability 1.1.1 What is green building? A green building‟s design, construction and operational practices can help to reduce or eliminate its negative impact on the natural environment and its consumers. Green building provides opportunity to use resources efficiently while creating healthier environments for people to live and work in. Building green is energy efficient which significantly reduce construction and performance costs and leave a lighter footprint on the environment (Green Building Council of Australia, 2014). 1.1.2 What is Sustainability? Sustainability is defined as something we need in order to survive and depends on the natural environment. It maintains the conditions where both human being and nature can exist in productive harmony, that allow fulfilling the economic, social and other requirements of the present and future generations. Sustainable is important to ensure that we will continue to obtain materials, and resources to protect human health and the environment without endanger the potential of people to meet their needs in the future (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2014). 1.1.3 Differences between ‘Green’ and ‘Sustainability’ Generally, the term „green‟ gives us and idea of something that is environmentally friendly or the present of it can eventually save the environment. „Green‟ emphasizes on the present or the near future impact such as indoor environment quality, operation, maintenance features, as well as meeting the current client necessities. It can refer to many contexts such as products, buildings, processes and even resources. In fact, nothing can be greener than a tree or plant. Sustainable however is a particular term used mostly for a product or process that can be re-used or re-grown (International Landscape Solutions, 2012). According to the U.S. Green Building Council, „building green homes are healthier, more comfortable and durable, save more energy and have a lesser environmental impact when compared to conventional homes." (Green Resource Council, 2013). On the other hand, sustainability is focused on the distant future where the design will cause an impact after 30 or 50 years. The manufacturing, transportation, and powering of a sustainable product would not deplete the resources or the surrounding area or pollute the air. As such, electricity supplied from the nature resources such as wind, solar or hydro then can be considered as sustainable (ZTC International Landscape Solutions, 2012). Page | 2
Any present actions such as consumer demand, federal government incentives, and local government policy are likely to achieve sustainability in the future time frame (Starrs, 2009). Green designs focus more on the immediate future (starting from constructing the building and then occupied). Sustainable design is of primary significance to the universal atmosphere in the long-term while still integrating characteristics of green design that focuses attention on the current and near future. However, the most imperative issue of a building is the balance between Green and Sustainable. For example, a green landscape engineer usually contributes in the end stage instead of the planning stage. In order to make a project green and sustainable, the landscape engineers should be involved from the planning stage so that all the environmental issues can be considered (ZTC International Landscape Solutions, 2012). 1.2 Importance of Green Building Cities and urban areas will need to be greened. „Greened‟ means that less buildings and more nature creations. There are a few reasons why human needs green building. Simple, economical form of green building is able to save materials, energy, maintenance cost, recycle materials and minimize the emission of toxic substances throughout its life cycle to sustain and enhance the quality of human life and buildings (Green Building Index, 2013). The rapid construction of built environment around the world in recent years will degrade the natural environment. Green building is a way of improving the environment. It is the future building design that intends to cause minimum harm to both human and environment (Shore, 2008). The concept of green building is to make correct design choices and using ecological materials in ways to create quality and long lasting environments causing the least damage to the Mother Nature. This can be possibly done by using natural resources such as sunlight, wind and rain which can be used to produce services which provides significant operational savings and increases workplace productivity (Shore, 2008). Furthermore, green building harmonizes with the local climate, traditions, culture and the surrounding environment. It as well raises awareness of what constitutes a high quality environment (Green Building Index, 2013).
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1.3 Green Building Hurdles 1.3.1 Introduction In recent years, the growth of the green building market has been widely famous, spurred largely by government policies and receiving rising recognition mentioning that green buildings are more economical to operate. Green building brings many benefits in term of saving energy, water and other natural resources. Yet, not everyone is doing it as it has some risk. A number of green building hurdles has to be overcome in the coming years to significantly increase the number of green building (Moresco, 2009). 1.3.2 Financial Risk Financial risk is the biggest concern to building owners, contractors and design companies to build green. It is not a simple matter as the building owner will need to worry about how constructing green buildings will affect the overall profit, cost of the project, and the capability to complete the projects on a given budget. Furthermore, people is still in doubt about the availability of affordable insurance solutions, volatility of merchandise prices, and the lack of understanding by lenders and financial institutions about the green building environment (Moresco, 2009). 1.3.3 Legal Risk The legal world still emphasizes on what liability and what are the compensations that should be for people who is not achieving those targets. The design team (architects, engineers and other professionals) are only responsible for about two-thirds of the LEED points needed to get a building certified; the rest dependents on the actions of the building contractors and owners. Let say the building isn't properly operated, lights or cooling systems are kept on when they aren‟t needed, it is still wasting energy although it is built using green technology (Moresco, 2009). 1.3.4 Green-washed Building Materials As the green building sector is becoming more popular nowadays, manufacturers of materials like paint, flooring and timber rushed to bring green products to the market. Yet, many of these products do not last long as what manufacturer said and they were of inferior quality compared with the conventional resources they were meant to replace (Moresco, 2009). Page | 4
1.3.5 Driving Energy Retrofits While green buildings are becoming more common for new construction in this century, the majority of existing structures use energy inefficiently. Hence reducing the built environment‟s total impact on energy consume over the next several decades hinges the most on retrofitting existing buildings. However, according to Dave Leathers, senior vice president at Pittsburgh-based Limbach Facility Services, a mechanical contractor, he says that „persuading owners to spend tens of thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of dollars to retrofit their buildings, even if the investments pay for themselves in three to five years, is often difficult‟ (Moresco, 2009). Due to today‟s economic condition, excess debt through financial institutions is difficult and building owners hesitant to spend money on projects outside their core businesses. Besides that, many buildings are not owner occupied, so the tenant will benefits from the energyefficient buildings rather than the owners who pay for it (Moresco, 2009). 1.3.6 Regulatory Risk The regulatory environment might evolve with respect to green buildings as a prime concern for the construction industry. Changes in government rules may result in significant punitive damages if green performance standards aren‟t met and this might drive owners to look for warranties and guarantees to recapture costs from contractors (Moresco, 2009).
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2. Advantages of Green Building 2.1 Introduction Green building is not a new fashion trend in the construction industry but has been there for quite some time. Introducing green building is to create a harmless yet energy efficient building to the world. While conventional buildings uses an excessive amount of natural resources such as energy, water, woods and etc, green buildings relies mostly on renewable resources such as sunlight, rainwater and etc. Natural resources in Malaysia are slowly depleting and thus alternative resources are vital in conserving them (Redavide, 2013). Benefits of green building may include environmental benefits, economical benefits and social benefits. 2.2 Environmental Benefits 2.2.1 Improve Indoor Environment Indoor air quality is very important. On average, people in industrialized nations spend most their time indoors, especially their homes. However, an enclosed space can contain substances which potentially hazardous to our health. These range from normal dust, to major irritants, such as the chemical vapor off-gassing from the newer synthetic building materials being used today. It affects the occupant‟s health and productivity (Green Building, 2010). Green building construction emphasizes on ventilation system. The system can be powered in different ways. It can be powered naturally, mechanically or passively. During green building construction, low or zero emission materials are used. Most materials used for ordinary buildings are toxic. Some of them radiate gases or volatile organic compounds which can eventually cause early asthma and other respiratory diseases (Redavide, 2013). 2.2.2 Energy Efficient Green building methods make the most out of energy, resources, and materials. Green building can reduce both embodied and operating energy consumption. It has proved that buildings which are built with wood will have a lower embodied energy than buildings made of brick, cement steel or other building materials. High-performance windows, extrainsulation and passive solar design are commonly being used by architects to promote green Page | 6
building. The latter is very efficient especially if the windows are effectively placed. Techniques like solar powering, facilitation of public transport increase energy efficiency and reduce harmful emissions. Other methods such as renewable energy like wind power and hydropower can also be use to reduce the influence on environment (Redavide, 2013). 2.2.3 Conserve and Restore Environment Green buildings are built by selecting materials that are durable, green, non-toxic, rapidly renewable, recyclable and reusable materials such as lumber, bamboo, straw, recycled metal or stone, sheep wool, compressed earth block, concrete, and cork to reduce negative environmental impacts. This will indicate that green buildings are material efficiency. Green building construction takes advantage of the natural elements and technologies to conserve resources and increase occupant comfort (Redavide, 2013). 2.3 Economic Benefits 2.3.1 Cost Effectiveness Research shows that building green does not necessarily need to cost more, there are many cost-effective program management and environmental strategies which can be integrated into the construction process right from the beginning. Green buildings have been shown to save money through reduced energy and water usage and maintenance costs. Several successful examples of green buildings have been built proving that sustainable design is cost-effective and have a great environment (Regents of the University of Colorado, n.d.). 2.3.2 Higher Property Value A building can keep a high sale value if it contains sustainable components. Green buildings have low energy cost. They uses gas, water, energy is highly reduced. As the awareness of environmental and social impacts caused by the built environment among developers, investors and occupiers increases, green buildings will have an increased marketability. Research has shown that green buildings are able to attract more tenants with an increase rent or sale price. Besides that, a green building can be easily turned into a net zero building. A net zero building or zero energy home is an active house where instead of spending money on it, a person can earn money with it. These buildings have almost zero consumption (Long, 2013).
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2.3.3 Improved Employee Attendance A green design will increase the natural lighting, control of ventilation and temperatureattributes that help improve the employees‟ health and prevent absence from them. As employees‟ health standard increases, they are more productive and their impact on work is higher and more effective (The City of Bloomington, 2003). 2.4 Social Benefits 2.4.1 Healthier Lifestyles and Recreation Green buildings build healthier and greener communities that are more affordable, diverse, inclusive and healthy place to live, work and play. A key element of sustainable design is the preservation of natural environments, which provides a variety of recreation and exercise opportunities. Green buildings also seek to provide alternatives to driving, such as public transport, to eases the local traffic while encouraging personal health and fitness (The City of Bloomington, 2003). 2.4.2 Enhance occupant’s health Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are characterized by the fact that they let out vapors at room temperature. VOC can be found on wood panels, carpets, paints, particleboard and many more. The effects that VOC brings to human health are headaches, eye irritation, fatigue and many more. Thus green building emphasizes on non-toxic and low emitting materials that creates a healthier and more comfortable living and working environment (Green Building, 2010).
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3. Disadvantages of Green Buildings 3.1 High Initial Costs and Unavailability of Materials One of the biggest drawbacks of green buildings is that a sum of money is needed initially compared to an ordinary building. However if it is considered on a long term basis, building a green building is more worthwhile. Green buildings require special materials such as ecofriendly materials which are used in such buildings that are not available in our country. These materials are relatively harder to find. Thus when these materials are imported from other places, they cost much higher due to the transportation fees, thus adding on to the initial cost of the green building. Another disadvantage of green buildings is the unavailability of the eco-friendly materials. Although, this is not an issue in big cities, yet, people in smaller towns and faraway places will find it extremely difficult to get these materials (Dogra, 2011). 3.2 Time The time taken to construct a green building is usually longer compared to a conventional building. It consumes more time to search for the required material. In some cases, green buildings might take a lot more time in designing it, as many factors need to be considered and thus putting the builders on hold for the whole construction. For instance, if the materials used in the construction are ordered on the internet and are being shipped from some faraway place, it can take days for them to reach the site. Moreover, construction workers or contractors would have to first understand the materials before handling or installing them using the correct methods. Thus contractors would have to be more involved in the construction process to make sure the construction job can be done correctly (Brinser, 2014). 3.3 Low Indoor Air Quality Everyone knows that green buildings are eco-friendly healthy and that it does not pollute the environment and is much more energy-efficient than traditional buildings. However, there are times where the materials or components used in green buildings affect the indoor air quality as well. For example fluorescent lights can be harmful to the health of the occupants as it emits radiation and can lead to health problems. In addition, the indoor air quality may further decrease if the builder uses a recycled product that contains some harmful chemicals that emit toxins indoor (Dogra, 2011).
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4. Green Facilities 4.1 Introduction Green facilities are smart facilities that promote sustainability in a building. The main function of these facilities are to manage their cost by reducing energy consumption, improving efficiency of equipments, constantly carrying out maintenance, and have a better building and human resource management. Although buildings have been practicing green facilities for the past decade, however current sustainable management means assessing the effects of the facilities changes on the productivity of the employees, production efficiency and consumption of energy. Managing these facilities in a green era needs people to see things with a broader vision, have a more thoughtful analysis and to be able to predict the future (Winkler, 2011). Green Facilities can be categorized into operation and building features. 4.2 Operation 4.2.1 Introduction It has been always said by building managers that the total cost of a facility can be broken down into 10% used during construction while 90% used for operation and maintenance. Hence, it is obvious that in order to reduce cost and maximize profit, the operational cost must be controlled (Winkler, 2011). 4.2.2 Indoor Vehicles Forklift,
transportation within a building over a wide variety of products, is the workhorses
environment. A normal forklift is able to carry items weighing up to 1814 kilograms and to a vertical distance of 6 meters. Picture 4.1 A PowerEdge fuel cell-powered forklift truck is refuelled at Nuvera's PowerTap hydrogen dispenser (Sandia National Laboratory, 2010).
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Engines of the vehicles were originally powered by gas or diesel, however recently it has been using hydrogen fuel cells to operate. PowerEdge, developed by Nuvera Fuel Cells is a smart system, equipped with remote monitoring capabilities to enables managers to have a better control of their forklift. Other than that, since hydrogen fuel cells stay on the vehicle, it can be refueled quickly (Winkler, 2011). 4.2.3 Water Management Plants are vital in providing oxygen to humans during photosynthesis. Xeriscape is a practice that utilizes plants which consumes a minimum amount of water to create a landscape that is sustainable and cost less to maintain. The word Xeriscape comes from the word landscape and the Greek word xeros, which means dry. This type of landscape is able to produce an attractive landscape design (Winkler, 2011). Rainwater collected in the tank will be used to water these plants. 4.2.4 Cleaning Chemicals used for cleaning must be first biodegradable, VOC free, nontoxic, plant based, noncorrosive and chlorine-free. Instead of using chemical detergents, industrial organic detergents are equally powerful and do not contain any harmful substances. The new technology used for green chemicals involves nano-sized particles that filter into the stain or dirt and breaks the bond between the surface and the stain particles for easy removal. This new technology will not only reduce carbon footprint but also reduce the probability of an employee getting sick and employer liability from disability or allergy claims from workplace (Winkler, 2011). 4.3 Building Features 4.3.1 Lighting Lighting up the interior of a building can easily be one of the most energy consuming aspects for operation. Thus steps must be taken to reduce the amount of energy consumed. LED lights represents one of the major advance in the lighting industry. Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are able to give a high energy performance with a long life span. Other than that, light sensors can be used to automatically shut off or reduce the illumination when natural daylight is available in the building or when the space is rarely accessed by people (Winkler, 2011).
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4.3.2 Window and Glazing Low-emissivity (Low-E) glass can be used in buildings as it reflects or absorbs infrared radiation coming from the sun. The thickness and the installation position of the Low-E coating determines whether it is for reflecting or absorbing the heat energy. For example, if the Low-E coating is installed on the interior side of a insulated window, it will reflect heat energy from the inside area to prevent heat loss during winter and if it's installed on the inside of the outer pane of the window, it will reflect or absorb heat from the outside thus reducing the amount of heat entering the building.
Diagram 4.1 The different installation position of a Low-E coating (Glass Solution, n.d.) 4.3.3 Roof Insulation Green roof or sometime known as living roofs, is a roof that has vegetation, soil, drainage, and a waterproof membrane. It can have a range of thickness of soil and plantings. Due to their water-holding capacity and vegetation, they will have a lower absorbance of solar heat compared to a normal roof and thus the roof will have a cooler temperature resulting in savings for energy bills. Besides that, it also acts as a good method to handle stormwater runoff, filtering carbon dioxide in the air and providing an extra space for family to carry out activities (Winkler, 2011).
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Diagram 4.2 The different layers of elements for a green roof (Bellingham Green Roofs, n.d.)
Picture 4.2 An example of a green roof for a high rise building (Your Building, n.d.)
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5. Green Building Index (GBI) 5.1 Introduction “The building sector has encountered a major global problem, which consumes as much as 40% of the world energy, 12% water wastage and 40% of the construction waste sent to the landfill” said Tony Arnel, Chairman of World Green Building Council (Green Building Index , 2013). Due to the wastage in the current construction industry, GBI has been launched since 23rd April 2005 which is based on the environmental, social, development and social needs in Malaysia. According to Rehda website, Green Building Index (GBI) is a Malaysia‟s green building rating tools for building in order to enhance the sustainability design in construction environment as well as create awareness related to the environmental issues among the builders among architectures, developers, contractors, designers, engineers and the public for the better future (REHDA Institute, 2010). Through GBI tools, developers and the building owners have standard measurement in designing and constructing green and sustainable building in terms of energy saving, water saving, good indoor environment and better public transport link to minimize the environmental impacts (REHDA Institute, 2010). Although GBI is still developing in Malaysia compared to Singapore, United State and Australia, many real estate industry‟s participants has been getting involve proactively by adapting green technologies and sustainable green building practices (Ellis, 2010).
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5.2 Green Building Index Rating Criteria BUILDINGS WILL BE AWARDED THE GBI RATING BASED ON 6 KEY CRITERIA: 1
Energy Efficiency (EE)
Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ)
Sustainable Site Planning & Management (SM)
Material and Resources (MR)
Water Efficiency (WE)
Table 5.1 6 key criteria in GBI rating system (Green Building Index, 2013). a.) Energy Efficiency (EE) -enhance the energy consumption by optimizing building orientation,
solar heat gain through the concept of building envelope, applying appropriate building services by using the renewable energy.
b.) Indoor Environment Quality (EQ) -
Ensure good indoor air quality, acoustics, visual and thermal comfort by applying the low volatile organic compound material, air filter, and proper control of air temperature, humidity and movement.
c.) Sustainable Site Planning and Management (SM) -
Choosing the strategic place and site which have an easy access to the public transportation, community services, landscaping, and open spaces. Carry on proper construction management, storm water management, minimizing the demand of existing infrastructure capacity
Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP)is a series of action that enable the government to forecast waste with the data collected by the contractor and build an efficient and complete mechanism to manage the waste
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d.) Materials and Resources (MR) -
Encourage the uses of the environmental friendly material which is less polluted to the environment and promote the habit of recycling, reuse, collection and storage of the formwork and waste.
e.) Water Efficiency (WE) -
Rain water harvesting, water storage fitting and water recycling
According to research carried by NAHRIM, rain water harvesting could save 20% of the peak discharge for housing area (Shaaban, n.d.)
Innovation (IN) -
Innovation design and initiatives of every parties to meet the objective of GBI
One of the criteria in Seven Strategic Thrust under Construction Industry Masterplan 2006-2015 is to innovate through research and development and new construction method (Sundaraj, 2007)
5.3 Green Building Index Evaluation Form
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Table 5.2 GBI assessment score (Green Building Index, 2013) The above table is the standard assessment marks in awarding the title green building. There are some differences in allocation of the GBI marks for non residential building and residential building. For non residential building, the GBI rating tool evaluates on industrial, institutional and commercial building which are hospitals, shopping complexes, colleges and hotel. The system mainly emphasize in indoor environmental quality and energy efficiency to reduce carbon footprint and long term saving for building owners. Whereas for residential building, GBI tool is used to measure the sustainability of the residential building such as linked house, apartment, condominium, semi detached house, bungalows and terrace houses. The system highlighted in choosing sustainable site management which have planned for public transportation, social connectivity and energy efficiency as well as intended to create a safer and comfortable living environment.
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Figure 5.1 Allocation of marks for residential and non-residential building (Green Building Index, 2013) 5.4 Green Building Index Class Classification Point
86 point and above
S P Setia Corporate HQ
76 to 85 point
The Horizon Phase 2
66 to 75 point
50 to 65 point
PTM Geo Building
Table 5.3 Building Classifications 5.5 Green Building Index Township 5.5.1 Introduction The average water consumed by Malaysian is 300 liters per day which is double of the United Nation standard and more than the average Singaporeans. Other than that, majority of the Malaysian owns a car which is 63% followed by 26% motorcyclist and 11% of them are using public transport. Moreover, the green space ratio is low (0.37 hectares/1000 person) compared to Singapore(0.86hectares/1000 person), Toronto and Melborne (2 hectares/1000 person) and London (4 hectares/1000 person). The standard for the rating tool is set based on the concept Asian most livable country from the aspects of stability, health care, culture & environment, education and infrastructures as well as Asian green cities in terms of carbon dioxide emission & energy, land use & building, transport and water. It helps in providing a high quality lifestyle from the aspect of economy, community and environment to future Malaysian.
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5.5.2 Reason of Development The major aim is to increase the green space ratio to 20 acres and more per 1000 person in residential, commercial and mix use block in the future. Second objective is to regenerate the projects in urban area, suburban and rural area. Thirdly is to ensure a minimum of 50% of the building development is being certified by the GBI. 5.5.3 GBI Township marks allocation
5.6 Green initiative in construction by the government in Malaysia 5.6.1 Introduction Since 2005, Malaysia‟s government realizes that a complete policy and strategies for green is needed in order to preserve and conserve the environment due the rapid changing of the global climates. Therefore, several steps and policies are being implemented to direct the professional builders to make innovation on current construction method. 5.6.2 Foreign Direct Investment (FDIs) under Green Technology The solar photovoltaic companies such as First Solar, Sun Power, Q-cell and Tokuyama have invested RM 12 billion to the market in year 2010 (Phuoe, 2010).They offered products such as solar cell, wayfaring, ingot and reclaiming silicon through recycling. These products have been used to minimizing the energy that caused environmental effects. With the investment from the foreign companies, Malaysia could generate more income in developing Page | 20
green technology which can apply in construction industry (Puvanasvaran, A.P,Miza Farhana Yop Zain,Zaid Ahmaed Al-Hayali,Mukhiffun Mukapit, 2012). 5.6.3 Implementing Renewable Energy Act 2010 Renewable energy act 2010 is proposed by feed –in-tariff (FiT). The Malaysia‟s government objective is to achieve 5.5% of the renewable energy total energy mix by the year 2015 and wish to reduce 40% of carbon dioxide emission by 2020 as the agenda of COP15. Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) which is under FiT released the policy of purchasing electricity generated by the solar photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and small hydro from the public (Leong, 2011). 5.6.4 Green Financing Malaysia government have been promoting green tech financing scheme for the producers and users. Under this scheme, around RM 1.5 billion with the subsidy of 2% of interest are given by the government. Besides that, Maybank is willing to provide financial assistance to the companies who wish to upgrade or build green projects such as wastewater treatment plant, solid waste recycling plant and green building construction (Chandran, 2012). 5.6.5 Tax Exemption Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri Malaysia (LHDNM) has issued the various types of tax incentive guideline for the building owner and the tenants. Tenants who are awarded the GBI certificate are eligible to obtain 100% set off tax from the statutory income for each year of assessment. The validity of the policy is until 31 December 2014 (Green Building Index, 2013). 5.6.6 Stamp Duty Allowance For residential building projects which are awarded with the GBI certificates, the buyers are exempted from the stamp duty on transfer of ownership of the building. The government used the stamp duty allowances to attract the builders to construct and offer the housing property. With the feature of green building, residential buildings are able to save energy used up to 50% which usually a quarter of the total building‟s operating cost (Ellis, 2010).
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5.7 Recommendation 5.7.1 Mandatory green requirement and compliances In year 2014, Singapore Building and Construction Authority (BCA) launched a new incentives scheme for green building, 3rd Green Building Masterplan. They decided to pump in 50 million of Singapore dollar to help the building owner to improve the energy efficiency of the existing building in Singapore. Furthermore, the main objective is to reach 80% of the green building by year 2030 (BCA, 2006). 5.7.2 Grooming green specialists BCA academy has built a holistic training framework to produce more green building professionals, expertise and experts who are able to design and manage sustainable building. These workforces are needed to enhance and innovate the current technology used by the construction industry (BCA, 2006).
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6. Case Study Green building is not a new concept but has existed since the 1970‟s. However, GBI was introduced in Malaysia only in the year 2009. Since then, many architects and engineers have been designing energy efficient buildings in Malaysia. Thus in this case study, the chosen building is Setia City Mall in Setia Alam, Selangor. 6.1 Setia City Mall, Setia Alam, Selangor 6.1.1 Introduction
Picture 6.1. A aerial view of the Setia City Mall, Setia Alam, Shah Alam (Home Design, 2014)
Picture 6.2 The Front view of the Mall (Setia City Mall, 2014)
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“Setia City Mall is a joint venture between Malaysia property developer, S P Setia and Asian Retail Investment Fund, a wholesale fund managed by global property and infrastructure group, Lend Lease” (Setia City Mall, 2014). Setia City Mall or more commonly known as the green heart of development comprises of more than 740,000 square feet of Net Lettable, exceeding 2500 car park, and over 240 shop retailers situated in the four levels of the mall. It is ideal place for dining with various types of restaurants available, entertainment, shopping and recreation in the area. One of many main retailers includes Parkson, Golden Screen Cinemas, Zara, Daiso and MPH Bookstore. There are other facilities available such as a 10.5 acre park; an exceptional child‟s play facilities and a water jet plaza (Setia City Mall, 2014). The mall is the first green mall in Malaysia and has achieved dual accreditation which is Green Mark by the Singapore Building and Construction Authority and Malaysia‟s Green Building Index (GBI) Silver Award (Chan, 2013). Other than that, the mall has also won several other awards such as The Edge-PAM Green Excellence Award and Fiabci Malaysia Property Award 2013 and Federation of International Real Estate (Fiabci) Prix d‟Éxcellence Awards 2014 (Chin, 2014). 6.1.2 Green Building Key Criteria 184.108.40.206 Introduction As mentioned in the previous section on Green Building Index (GBI), there are six key criteria which a particular building will be accessed in order to be qualified as the title green building. Thus in Setia City Mall, all the six criteria which are Energy Efficiency (EE), Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ), Sustainable Site Planning & Management (SM), Material and Resources (MR), Water Efficiency (WE), and Innovation (IN) will be discussed. 220.127.116.11 Energy Efficiency (EE) 18.104.22.168.1 Introduction Energy efficiency can be defined as achieving “more with less” by using the energy that we utilized to fulfill our needs and prevent from wasting energy and to have an equal or greater results for homes and businesses (Trade and Investment Resources and Energy, n.d.). Energy can be optimized in many methods such as by heating or cooling, lighting, manufacturing and transporting goods or materials.
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22.214.171.124.2 Case Study Setia City Mall Energy Efficiency is one of the main criteria that enable the mall to be certified as a green building. Dr Tan Loke Mun, the architect who designed the mall had energy efficiency and sustainability in his mind while proposing the design to SP Setia. IEN Consultants were in charge of the computer simulations to ensure that the energy performance for the building has reached its target and that the payback for each of these strategies met the client‟s hurdle rate. There are two software programme that aids the building manager to operate the building efficiently which are Building Management Service (BMS) and Central Energy Management System (CEMS). BMS is a computer based system that helps to manage, control and monitor the building services such as HVAC, lighting and the energy consumption of devices utilized by the building (Trend Controls, n.d.). On the other hand, CEMS is a tool that produces data from the mall for example the characteristics of the current climate, energy usage and consumption. The system will save 2-3% of energy because of the excellent monitoring function (ManagEnergy, 2014). For a normal mall, the air conditioning system consumes 45-50% of the total energy. Setia City Mall also uses a high efficiency air conditioning system which comprises of a high Coefficient Of Performance (COP) chiller, high efficiency variable speed air handling unit (AHU) fans and high efficiency motors and pumps. The chiller plant in the mall is having a minimum System Coefficient of Performance of at least 4.0 for the whole year. COP of the chiller is calculated with the formula,
In addition, the conventional T8 fluorescent lamps are replaced with the T5 fluorescent lamps at the car park. The reason is because T5 produces more usable light compared to the T8 model.
Diagram 6.1 The different types of fluorescent lamps (Lighting Solutions, 2014) Page | 25
Besides that, the lightings used at car park will be controlled by a Lux Sensor, which can be found along the perimeter of the car park to conserve on energy used on lighting. IEN Consultants must ensure the correct the circuits is installed with an automatic Lux Sensors (IEN, 2014). The Lux Sensors are also used throughout the mall to control the lightings. Energy efficient lighting is encouraged to install to all the mall tenants by limiting the maximum power usage of 35W/m² for retail shop and 85W/m² for food and beverages area.
Chart 6.1 shows the energy consumption annual reduction percentage for the mall in various aspects (IEN Consultant, n.d.) The Mall was simulated to achieve an energy index less than 130 kWh/m2/year compared to a normal Mall which will have an energy index ranging from 400~500 kWh/m2/year (IEN Consultant, 2012). 126.96.36.199 Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) 188.8.131.52.1 Introduction Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) is about the environmental qualities inside the building which is able to provide comfort and health to the building occupant. The factors that influence IEQ are temperature, humidity, ventilation, indoor air quality, day lighting, and lighting quality, thermal comfort as well as the access view of the building (Hobday, Richard, 2011).
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184.108.40.206.2 Case Study Setia City Mall Large glass window is fixed at the façade of Setia City Mall to allow sunlight to penetrate throughout the building in order to replace artificial lightning. Moreover, floor to ceiling glass is applied to allow the natural light invaded into each floor. The architect, Dr Tan Loke Mun has designed a row of glass window at the roof to permit sunlight to occupy the whole building.
Picture 6.3 The row of glass windows at the roof to permit sunlight but not heat into the Mall (Sepul, 2012)
Picture 6.4 The internal view of the mall with “Just Sufficient” ambient lighting (IEN Consultant, 2012) Page | 27
To ensure the natural lit stream into the whole structure, light shelves along the upper wall are being installed. Light sensor gauge is fixed as the backup lighting backup system (The Stars Online, 2013). These steps taken could help in reducing the operating cost by 50% (Setia City Mall, n.d.). In addition, the paint used in Setia City Mall is a low volatile organic compound which is user friendly to the environment and human health. The paint has minimum odor, low monomer content and does not require coalescing agents for film formation. Performance of the paint can be enhanced by using minimum binder which is scrub resistance (Wacker, n.d.). Furthermore, Smartcoat is applied to break down the faulty smell of the paint and ensuring a good indoor air quality (Smartcoat, 2011). Smartcoat can be sprayed to all designated surface of the wall. Its characteristics are anti-bacteria, anti-mold, anti-viral and deodorizing (Smartcoat, 2014). To ensure the provision of the adequate fresh air provided in the building, Carbon dioxide sensor is being installed in Air Handling Unit Room (AHU). These may help in enhance the building performance in terms of energy usage and thermal comfort of the shoppers (IEN Consultant, n.d.). With the application of the carbon dioxide sensor, fresh air will be extracted from outdoor when the concentration of the carbon dioxide reaches a specific level. The indoor temperature will be set approximately 26 degrees Celsius and remain 70% of the humidity rate (Setia City Mall, n.d.). Furthermore, the car park for the mall has a wall-less design to aid in ventilating the place naturally, hence there will be none choking of air caused by car exhaust fumes (Tan, 2013). 220.127.116.11 Sustainable Site Planning and Management (SM) 18.104.22.168.1 Introduction A sustainable site planning involves choosing the correct site to construct a building by considering all the related factors such as public transport access and many more. Sustainable site management on the other hand involves in managing the construction site, from excavation to storm water management and etc.
22.214.171.124.2 Case Study Setia City Mall The site was originally a 4,000 acres oil plantation land in Shah Alam where 600 acres were sold to Selangor State Development Corp (PKNS) and the remaining was for the Setia Alam Page | 28
Township and Setia Eco Park. Out of that remaining, 240 acres were allocated for a green commercial hub where its heart is Setia City Mall (Green Building Index, 2013).
Picture 6.5 The beginning stage of the construction for the Mall (Setia City Mall, 2010)
According to Robert Spinks, development director of Setia City Mall and Lend Lease Project (m) Sdn Bhd, there were minimal earthworks as the Mall is a Greenfield project and the area was cleared before then. Earth that was excavated was re-used on site to reduce the needs of transporting excess earth to specific sites. Besides that, big rocks that was blasted were to be used to form the edges of the pond for the man-made lake next to the mall (Chan, 2013). Precast beams and hollow core slabs were used to speed up the construction process thus less pollution.
Picture 6.6 The hollow core slabs used for the mall (Left), the overview of the west side of the Mall (right) (Setia City Mall, 2010)
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During the construction of the mall, the storage of the chemicals and paints were put at designated areas which are far away from the building. The waste generated from the chemicals were taken out and disposed by registered contractors who are specially in charge of this field. Besides that, the control of silt and erosion is also implemented by using temporary earthen drains that are connected to a temporary silt trap within the vicinity of the project. Rain water and construction water that are reused must go through a temporary chemical treatment plant in the construction site (IEN Consultant, n.d.).
In a distance less than 150m from the mall, a bus stop for public transportation as well as free shuttles to transport customers to nearby areas of Klang and Shah Alam. This service is to promote the use of a green public transportation. Other than buses, there is also ample parking space for bicycle riders as during weekends, the locals (those who stay at Setia Eco Park) may cycle to the mall. There are a total of 2700 bays of parking space in the mall (Tan, 2013). Preferred parking lots which are closer to the key entrance are especially for family or car-pool vehicles. On the other hand, fuel efficient vehicles such as hybrid cars have special parking allocated for them and charging stations are available when electric cars are introduced into Malaysia (IEN Consultant, n.d.).
Picture 6.7 The Preferred parking for green vehicles in Setia City Mall (My Jazz Hybrid, n.d.) 126.96.36.199 Materials and Resources (MR) 188.8.131.52.1 Introduction In year 2008, only 5% of the wastes are recycled (Global Environmental Centre, 2014). Therefore, the society members play a vital role in enhancing the people‟s awareness on 3R Page | 30
(reduce, recycling, reuse) program. Materials and resources refer to reusing recycled materials or resources for the building. It could be during construction or after constructing the building. It also covers waste management such as storing waste materials.
184.108.40.206.2 Case Study Setia City Mall Upon entering the Mall, people will notice that some of the front portion of the shop uses worn wood or empty egg cartons for decorations. This saves on using other finishes such as paint. The walls are constructed from lightweight concrete that is able to reduce heat penetration from sunlight.
The landfills in Malaysia are being rapidly filled up with 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste daily and is about to a point there will be insufficient land to place the solid waste (SH Fauziah, P Agamuthu, 2012). Thus to reduce the amount of waste produced, recycling is encouraged by using waste separation bins which can be found throughout the Mall. The Waste Management Consultant will train the tenant to do waste separation (Chin, 2013).
Picture 6.8 Recycle bins in the Mall (left) and “Love Green, Begin” Earth Hour event (right) (Tan, 2013)
A recycling centre is located outside of the mall where workers will further separate the cardboards ranging from paper, plastic and more. There is also a Drive Through Recycling Center to allow shoppers to unload recyclable items before restocking at Mall (IEN Consultant, 2012). The management of the Setia City Mall has aimed to increase 24% of recycling rate to between 30% and 50% (Lam , Jia Wayn, 2013).
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Picture 6.9 The Recycle Center located at Mall (Left) and Compressor machine for cupboards in the center (Right) (Glampink, 2013)
Green lease is a contract between the landlord and the tenant of a commercial building which is the obligation among both parties in minimizing the environmental impact in terms of energy, waste and water (GlamPink, 2013). Setia City Mall is the first shopping mall who launched green lease. Tenants are being educated in conservation of resources and to operate in an efficient way. Moreover, information about all green requirements such as low votile paint, low voltage light as well as methods to organize the waste are taught to all tenants (The Stars Online, 2013). “Love Green, Begin” is slogan used to support Earth Hour. The main objectives of the activity are to enhance the awareness on the importance of sustainability as well as methods of sustainability features executed in the mall to minimize carbon footprint. Moreover, the mall had switched off the main lights for one hour in accordance to Earth Hour Campaign (Chan, 2013).
220.127.116.11 Water Efficiency (WE) 18.104.22.168.1 Introduction Water efficiency is the proper usage of water resources by utilizing water-saving technologies and by practicing easy steps to reduce the wastage of water resources. On average, a family spends $1,100 per year on water bills (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2014). In order to practice water efficiency, water harvesting such as rainwater harvesting and recycling is needed. Water efficient fittings may also be installed to increase the efficiency.
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22.214.171.124.2 Case Study Setia City Mall Toilets, sinks and taps in the mall uses water saving fittings which complies to WELS (Singapore‟s Water Efficiency Labeling Scheme) rating. By using this method, it saves up to 50% of the total water consumption used in toilet (IEN Consultant, 2012). The sinks in the washroom also uses self-closing faucets to prevent shopper from leaving the tap running (Tan, 2013). Other than that, water catchment plane takes up one third of the space on the roof of the Mall. It functions to direct the rainwater to a collection tank via a siphonic drain pipe system. The rainwater collected is used for irrigation of the landscape around the Mall. By using the hourly basis rainfall data for Kuala Lumpur, the correct sizing of the rainwater tank can be achieved (IEN Consultant, 2012).
Picture 6.10 The water tank located on the rooftop of Mall for rainwater collection purposes (Glampink, 2013) In addition, the amount of potable used for the cooling tower will be reduced by using the collected condensate water from the Air Handling Units (AHU) and Fan Coil Unit (FCU) to refill the makeup water used by the cooling tower (IEN Consultant, 2012). 126.96.36.199 Innovation (IN) 188.8.131.52.1 Introduction Innovations are new ideas, designs, processes or devices that are created to introduce a better solution to meet the new requirements. Innovation in the GBI would be designs or processes that helps to promote a greener environment.
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184.108.40.206.2 Case Study Setia City Mall One of the innovations done by IEN Consultant (2012) is generating renewable energy from Speed Bump while slowing down vehicles around the shopping mall‟s car park. Millions of automobiles go over thousands of speed bumps on the road; hence a new technology called Green Speed Bump is invented to convert the speed bumps into green electric power plants. A green speed bump has identical shape and size to a normal speed bump. As a car moves over the bump, its kinetic and gravitational potential is converted into electricity. The particular speed bump is able to generate approximately 1 Megawatt of electricity daily. Hence the electricity produced can be used to supply electricity to shops in the mall (SunMan Engineering, 2013).
Diagram 6.2 The cross section of a Green Speed Bump (Solid Works, 2014).
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7. Conclusion In an environmentally stressed world, the concepts of green buildings have been changing from curiosity to a necessity. Buildings carries a huge impact to the environment as it accounts for "one-sixth of the world's fresh water withdrawals, one-quarter of its wood harvest and two fifth of its material and energy flows" (Goffman, 2006). A green building will bring a lot of benefits to not only the environment but to the economy and social as well. However, evaluating a green building can be difficult at times as there are a heavy amount of aspects to consider before the building can be certified as a green building. The Malaysian government should promote green building by giving incentives that incorporate a variety of techniques that will target a wide spectrum of contractors, developers and operator thus this will be able to entice each of them to practice green building. Thus with an increment of the total green buildings in Malaysia or in the world, the world will be a better place to live in.
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