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Introduction Depression is a state which a person feels very sad, hopeless and unimportant and often is unable to live in a normal way. According to Bansal, Gayal, and Srivastava (2009), a lot of physicians did not believe that depressive disorders existed in the youth 40 years ago. Nowadays, the youth are very prone to depression due to many factors that can affect their emotional, mental, psychological state of mind in their everyday life especially being a student. This study about depression is quite strange topic because it is very mysterious yet the majority of people especially in school settings lacks knowledge about this topic In the recent time, depression occurred more and more often to almost all of the teens. The statistics of National Institute of Mental Health (2014) states that depression is the most often mental disorder that teens and adults in United States have. According to their study, over 2.8 million youth with age of 12-17 have experienced at least one major depression. Another study from faculty.washington.edu (2013) states that depression can last longer and may last for a year or so. Depression can be triggered in several of ways like failures, lost loved ones, identity loss, and many more. They clear that not everyone who experience these negative events catch on depression. On the contrary, there are factors that make them vulnerable to into it is a severe mental disorder that may last longer, but there are some people who can endure it because they are aware of themselves. According to World Health Organization-Philippines (2017), in the whole Philippines alone, they stated that about 3.9 million people are living with depression and about 3.07million people are living with anxiety. They added that depression is one of the most leading factor that makes one person to commit suicide. They further explained that a serious national talk regarding depression in which every Filipino is engaged is urgently needed. They also concluded on their research that depression is a mental disorder that spread in a whole wide world and it can affect our daily living. Unlike many large-scale international problems, a solution for depression is at our hand.
In addition, the American Psychological Association also known as APA (2017) defined depression more than just a sadness, but also a mental disorder. People experience depression because of lack in interest and pleasure in daily activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or excessive sleeping, lack of energy, inability to concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. Depression is a topic that is studied by a lot of researches from time to time but the past studies failed to explore or interpret the experiences of a youth student that undergo the process of depression and the themes of it in a classroom setting. Furthermore, World Health Organization did not specify the age range of people who suffer from it. The American Psychological Association have failed to elaborate and further explain the definition of depression. They only stated the reason behind `1-`depression. It focuses more on the people who are grown up. They did not mention about the teenagers that experience the depression. Anyone can be a victim of depression as suggested to a related study, it can be a teen or an adult. That study failed to explain the difference of experiences between the teen and adult depression. Literature also missed to fill the gap about what do victims of depression do lessen the problem or mental disorder they have. In addition, this research will also serve as an instrument to view the experiences of a depressed youth student and the themes behind it and explain the possible reasons on how a person or a youth student can solve his/her situation. This study aims to understand the depression on youth among students through exploratory research design to discover the factors affecting their psychological and mental aspects and also to know what causes them to be emotionally compromised that leads to a depressive state. In addition, the study seeks to have an in depth understanding on how they cope with anxiety. This study will utilize a semistructured interview to uncover the answers to our questions regarding youth depression and the reasons within. It will also offer ideas to people especially who’s suffering from depression and as well to provide
awareness to the students themselves. Finally, recommendations are identified to help researchers, parents, educators, and for everyone who plays an important role regarding on this matter. Review of Related Literatures This chapter presents a closer point of view in the research’s related literature, theoretical foundation and a shorter survey of related studies on Depression Among Students in Meycauayan National High School. These will give a foundation for the systematic analyses that will make the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the research. The word “depression” is defined as “sadness” and as a “medical illness”, a combination of such symptoms like a change of mood, physical symptoms like changes in sleep, energy, appetite, a person’s degree of confidence also self-esteem. Depression is also correlated with abuse of substances, unemployment, early pregnancy, and educational failures that can lead people to commit suicide. Apparently, it is unusual or unlikely that someone who’s having a hardship from depression to be noticed and managed (ADAP, 2007). Additionally, Hoerman (2013) claims that depression during the belief of the 1970’s is an ailment of adulthood and that children and adolescents do not experiences is now long gone. It has already been measured or evaluated that depression is a form of mental illness that affects most of the adolescents with prevalence rates between ten and twenty percent. The National Institute of Mental Health has disclosed statistically a compelling variation across age and gender in the lifetime prevalence of mood disorders, including depression, for adolescents 13 to 18. Another study on the topic by Pappas (2015), teenage depression is somehow connected to cyber bullying in social media according to new researches that study different online phenomena. Number of people who examines the victims of cyber bullying increases especially when news of suicide occur. Teenagers use social media more often this days according to Michele Hamm, but the effects of it in one’s
health is still unknown. It is most likely for teens to experience depression in their adulthood when they are being bullied. Early work by Renata and Jacek (2010) shows that an epidemiological appraisal of depression during the adolescence age was always been a challenging issue since the late studies during the 60’s and 70’s. Angold disclosed that the reasons behind the gap between prevalence indexes should be looked for in the different therapeutic ways, diagnostic tools used, as well as where the information came from. He also discussed the crucial problem of the imprecise meaning of adolescent depression as a mental disorder and until now, the problem hasn’t been solved yet. Depression is an illness that intervene with a person’s functional ability. The characteristics of depression can be from the feeling of boredom, irritability, and the inability to feel pleasure instead of sadness. Depression cases that it is not treated can last over 7 to 9 months and most likely occur again in adulthood. Symptoms of depression are most likely to be found in children and adolescents that is why it is hard to figure out the signs of depression. Depression affects the daily activities of both children and adolescents. Both male and female child have the same prevalence rate of depression but there is a sudden increase in female rate when they reach the stage of puberty. There are also many factors that promotes the development of depression in children and adolescents such as genetic and biologic vulnerability, environmental factors, negative life events, and personality, temperament, and vulnerability of the child (Ranttila & Shrestha, 2011). In addition, a study in the University of Missouri stated that any form of social media can be a source of depression depending on how a person use it. Using it as a tool for surveillance to check on others may lead to the feeling of depression. By doing this, you compare your own situation to your friend’s situation like having a vacation, relationship, achievements, etc. This leads you to envy them and
can lead you to depression. A tip for those people who experience this kind of envy is that the post you have seen is customized to show the positive side of their lives (Liu, 2015). However, adolescents’ depression has no specific cause. Mayo clinic explains that there are many factors that lead to depression. First is the difference in the brain, adolescents have different brain structure than the adults. A depressed teen can also have a different amount of hormone and neurotransmitters that helps their brain cells to connect and is one responsible for regulating moods and behavior. The second one is traumatic early life events, children don’t have enough experience to handle such a traumatic event in their lives like loss of a parent or physical, emotional or sexual abuse and these can leave a lasting effect that can contribute to their depression. The third one is inherited traits, research shows that if a child or adolescent have a family member who is depressed, and it is most like for them to have it also. The last one is learned patterns of negative thinking, teens always think in a bad way like thinking of themselves as helpless instead of thinking of how to solve a problem and this can also develop into depression (Krans, 2016). The factors that leads to depression in youth specifically in students can be inherited, also because of stress in social interaction (A. Thapar, Collishaw, Pine, & A.K Thapar, 2012). Additionally, in the study of 2005, an early article about stress that also leads to depression is categorized by feelings of tension, frustration, too much worrying, and sadness (Walker 2005; ADAP, 2007; Ranttila & Shrestha, 2017). Because of that, depression are severe and lasts longer that have been categorized by extreme feelings of hopelessness, sadness, isolation and worthlessness that lasts for two weeks or more (Walker, 2005; ADAP 2007). There many factors that may lead a students to be depressed, this is also as true as the articles that has been stated, a student may feel depressed when he/she experience loneliness in his/her current state because of those factors and the most severe effects of depression is an attempt or to commit suicide, most young people who experience depression are at high risk in attempting suicide
than the young ones who do not experience depression, however, not all youth who are depressed are attempting to commit suicide, this statement has been explained by Walker (2005) as: "These young people report exhibiting much more anger and ventilation; avoidance and passivity; and aggressive, antisocial behavior. They describe yelling, fighting and complaining; drinking, smoking and using doctor-prescribed drugs more frequently; and sleeping, riding around in cars and crying more often. They are less inclines to do things with their family or to go along with parents' rules and requests" (p.4). In addition, (2010), she stated that "All students are entitled to an education in a positive environment" but a problem can go in the way of students to pursue their educational attainment especially if it can deal some serious effect in terms of psychological and their whole being. Previous conducted researches showed high rates of students' psychological problems like anxiety, and depression are widely spread in universities in the world (Al-Qaisy, 2011). Depression can cause negative effects on a student's education(Kurt D. Michael, Timothy J. Hueisman, Claudia Gerard, Theresa M. Gilligan, & Melissa R. Gustafson, 2006), and psychological unhealthiness (Al-Qaisy, 2011). Methodology The study treads on a qualitative exploratory research design utilizing three (3) Senior High School Students using semi-structured interviews either through Facebook Messenger or journal sheets in an iterative or simultaneous data gathering procedure. The researchers code the data to form categories and later reduces the data into themes to explain the live experiences of the participants in both graphical and verbal form.
Realities and Truths DEPRESSION
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework
The study seeks to explore the realities of Senior High School Students in Meycauayan National High School (MNHS) by viewing the information from individuals in their experiences about depression of students in MNHS. The connection of these concepts in literature and studies eventually provides the bases on how they exist and emerge on the lives of the participants. This framework therefore uses these relationships and connections to describe the people’s live experiences to establish the truth.
Results and Discussion Depression is considered as a mental illness causing an individual to feel such severe uncomfortableness to themselves such as guilt and sadness that often leads to suicidal thoughts. It also has no medical cause and a specific effect. The researchers found out codes turned into categories and hence using a semi-structured interview. The researchers will get the results with this codes and have a discussion about the outcome of the interview. The researchers found three themes on student’s depression. These themes are cause of depression, effect of depression, and ways to cope up with depression. The codes that were collected by the researchers show the experiences of students about depression. It sums up the causes of depression to the respondents like Respondent A noted “di ako naiintindihan ng mga taong nasa paligid ko especially sa nanay ko na minsan naisip ko di niya ako maunawaan”. It is also noted by Respondent B that “this started when my mum and dad got separated. I ignored it first. I remember I cut my thighs when I was in fourth grade”. The researchers determined this statement as self-harming actions aside from family problems, there are also things such as school works that can cause depression to the students. As Respondent A stated that “nahihirapan din ako, sumabay pa yung mga tambak na gawain tulad ng research”. The two major factors that cause students’ depression are family problems and school works. Another theme that has been revealed in this study is the effects of depression among students. For an instance, the change of mood just as Respondent B stated “I’d sit in class laughing then the next moment it’s like there is something whispers to you that you don’t deserve to laugh nor live”. Hence, the researchers dive into the deeper effects of depression which is connected to the feeling of giving up as Respondent B stated once again “Waiting for the fire to turn you to ash”. The statement of Respondent B indicated that this leads to suicidal thoughts. As a matter of fact, Respondent
B noted that “I always think of ways to murder myself. I’d research. And when I’m at school and I was in the corridor, I think of jumping. When I’m out on the road I don’t look left or right.” As the researchers have studied further about suicidal thoughts, it indicated the respondents’ sense of self-worthlessness where in Respondent B noted that, “the environment, when you show signs they don’t give crap”. It sums up that the respondents’ sense of self-worthlessness affected their physical state which is weight loss where in Respondent B noted, “I always change weight. Last June I was 55kg then right now my weight is 41kg”. Respondent C also noted that, “nababawasan ang timbang ko”. Lastly, the researchers focused on the respondents’ ways to cope up with depression in which Respondent A stated that, “iniiyak ko lang lahat para maging ok,pray lang naman yung kinakapitan ko”.
Figure 2. Thematic Diagram: Depression Among Students
This study about Depression among Students in Meycauayan National High School has a result that shows 3 main themes which are: Ways to Cope Up with Depression, Causes of Depression, and Effects of Depression. The categories that are under the first main theme (Ways to Cope Up with Depression) are crying, praying, finding friends, finding a happy place, and finding a new hobby. The second main theme (Causes of Depression) also has categories under it which are family problems, school works, loneliness, high expectations, and overthinking. The categories of the third main theme (Effects of Depression) are: feeling of giving up with 3 sub categories (suicidal thoughts, paranoia, and suicidal attempts), overthinking with 4 sub categories (secretive, irritable, emotional breakdown, and afraid to be judged) change of mood with 4 sub categories (self-harming, being forgetful, violent thoughts, and unclear thoughts) and feeling of self-worthlessness with 3 sub categories (feels like a burden to others, weight loss, and attention seeking actions). After analyzing the results, the researchers therefore conclude that depression has different causes and effects on students. On the other hand, there is still a lot of ways to cope up with depression.
References Poquiz, J. L. & Frazer, A. L. (2016). Depression in Children and Adolescents. Ranttila, J. & Shrestha, T. (2011). Understanding Depression in Children and Adolescents. Thapar, A., Collishaw, S., Pine, D., Thapar, AK., (2012) Depression in Adolescent. Published in Lancet ADAP (2017). Adolescent Depression viewed September 24, 2017, retrieved from: www.hopkinsmedicine.org/psychiatry/specialty_areas/moods/ADAP/ APA (2017). Psychology Topics viewed September 24, 2017, retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/topics/depression/ Auerbach, R., (2015). Depression in adolescents: Causes, Correlates and Consequences. Published by Psychological Science Agenda. Bansal V, Goyal S, & Srivastava K. (2009). Study of Prevalence of Depression in Adolescent Students of a Public School Bomba, J., & Modrzejewska R. (2010). A Comparative Study of Adolescent Depression Among High School Pupils in a Large Polish City. Cassie Dobson (2010). Effects of Academic Anxiety on the Performance of Students With and Without Learning Disabilities and How Students Can Cope Up With Anxiety at School. Hoerman, E. D. (2013). Depression in Children and Adolescents: The role of school Professionals. Krans, B. (2016). Adolescent Depression. Kurt D. Michael, Timothy J. Hueisman, Claudia Gerard, Theresa M. Gilligan, & Melissa R. Gustafson (2006). Depression Among College Students: Trends in Prevalence and Treatment Seeking.
Lama M. Al-Qaisy (2011). The Relation of Depression and Anxiety in Academic Achievement among Group of University Students. Liu, S. (2015). Social Media and Depression. Pappas, S. (2015). Cyber bullying on Social Media Linked to Teen Depression. . 2012 Mar 17; 379(9820): 1056-1067. Walker, J. (2005). Adolescent Stress and Depression. Produced by Extension Center for Youth Development.
RALPH LAUREN I. COMANDANTE is a studying in Meycauayan National High School in 12th grade under the strand of Humanities and Social Sciences at Camalig, City of Meycauayan, Bulacan. He was born on April 02, 1997 and he lives in Elysian Homes, Bahay Pare, City of Meycauayan, Bulacan. JOHN KEVIN L. DOMINGO is studying in Meycauayan National High School as a grade 12 student. He was born on March 02, 1999 in Malanday, Valenzuela City, his mother is Maribel Domingo and his father is Trece Domingo Jr. When he was in kindergarten he awarded as a best in cleanliness and most behave and when he was in High School, he was awarded Top 1 in grade 9 also cheerdance champion, nutri jingle champion in grade 10. Finally in grade 11, champion in Readers Theater, Sabayang pagbigkas and 2nd place in Science Jingle. He wants to become a teacher. JACKO S. FUNTANILLA is currently studying in Meycauayan National High School as a grade 12 student. He was born on October 4, 1999 in Paranaque City. His mother’s name is Lenibeth Funtanilla and his father’s name is Jack Funtanilla. JOHN PAUL M. MIGUEL is currently a grade-12 senior high school student in Meycauayan National High School under the strand of Humanities and Social Sciences at Camalig, City of Meycauayan, Bulacan. He was born on July 2, 2000 and is currently living in #38 Scorpio St. Phase 4-D Brgy. Perez, Meycauayan, Bulacan. His research interests are political references of people in different places, lifestyle of people in in different countries, and cultural differences of people with mixed race. REIGNER JAN F. POTOT is currently studying in Meycauayan National High School as a grade 12 student. He was born on November 16, 1999 in Manila Central University. His father’s name is Renato B. Potot and his mother’s name is Janette F. Potot. When he was in Senior High School he received couple of awards in many categories such as postermaking contests, journalism and he reigned as Mr. Eco Modelo 2016. At the end of his Senior High School, he is planning to go to University of Sto. Tomas and take BSE Elementary Education and major in Preschool Education CHRISTIAN M. TURLA is currently studying in Meycauayan National High School as a grade 12 student. He was born July 15, 1999 in Manila, Quezon City, Barangay Polilio. His father’s name is Eliseo Pingol Turla and his mother’s name is Lolita Montirola Turla., he is the youngest son in the family, when he was in Senior High School in Meycauayan National High School he starts to join some activities like when he was on grade 11, he tried to run for the grade 12 chairperson but unfortunately he lost, the next year he joined a lots of activities like the politics and governance museum where he received a certificate for being one of the best speakers.