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HSE OBJECTIVES & TARGETS 1.0
Purpose / Scope
The purpose of this document is to clearly define the process used to develop HSE objectives and targets and HSE management plans. It is important to focus our effort on what needs to be done to protect people and the environment. We must also recognize that we cannot do everything at once and therefore efforts must be prioritized.
2.0 Definitions 2.1 HSE Objective An HSE goal arising from a policy or standard that the organization sets it self to achieve and which is quantified . 2.2 HSE Target A detailed performance requirement, quantified, applicable to the organization or parts thereof, that arises from theHSE objectives and that needs to be set in order to achieve those objectives. 2.3 Risk factor
A measure of the risk to humans or the environment based on the average of the values assigned to the “significance” and “probability” of occurrence from the HSE risk ranking analysis process.
3.0 General requirements It is essential for ISG to develop objectives and targets, which align with and support the Association Objectives andTargets. In selecting the appropriate objectives and targets,ISG operation must, at a minimum, consider the following: 1. The facilities HSE risks including past performance 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Technological options Financial, operational and business requirements Legal and other requirements Views of interested parties Audit results Association Objectives and Targets
Objectives and targetsshould be realistic, measurable and achievable. The number of objectives and targets willvary depending on theabove listed criteria. Having too many objectives and targets can result in a loss of focus and therefore it is recommended that each facility focus on no morethan 2-4 annually. This does not mean that we will not improvein areas outside of our defined objectives in fact, improvements in we onedo area result in improvements in other areas. Itand alsotargets; does not suggest that because notoften have HSE objectives and targets for all HSE risks that we will not take steps to manage and minimize the HSE impacts of all of our activities.
Accidents at work
Definition: Is considered accident, whatever the cause, the accident out of or in connection with the work to any employee or working in any capacity or in any place whatsoever, for one or more employers or business leaders. Cause: Ergonomic research shows that an accident does not have asingle cause. It is the result of aofbad combinatio n of design many factors such as: definingtraining the organization work, equipment and the environment, employees, insufficient information of the operators on the design, installation and maintenance of operating procedures ... - The accident is both a symptom and consequence of the deterioration of a system Responsibility for accidents: The employer is civilly and criminally responsible for accidents. It must ensure to the Social Security and the amount of the contribution depends on the number of accidents that occurred in his company. Prevention is the best way to reduce the employer and may be assisted in this task (for a safety engineer for example). Professional diseases Definition
Diseases result from a more or less prolonged exposure to nuisance or a risk when the habitual exercise of the profession. For example, repeated exposure to industrial noise can cause an irreversible occupational deafness. Cause Causing a nuisance professional health impairment from many sources: physical chemical, biological, posture or attitude of work ... Recognition of occupational diseases To be legally recognized and compensated, these diseases should be encouraged in tables annexed to the Code of Social Security. These tables contain the list of recognized symptoms, these works may beresponsible and time to treatment (maximum period between the end of exposure and discovery of the disease). In this context, the worker need not prove the connection between illness and work
What is a confined space? The problems of confined spaces •
The work-related accidents in confined spaces are often serious orfatal accidents. Most deaths were related to oxygen deficiency or the presence of toxic or flammable gases. 60% of the victims were workers who tried toeffect a rescue without the knowledge and equipment.
Definition of confined spaces It is a space or partially enclosed: 1. which is not designed for human occupancy. 2. which has limited means of entry and exit. 3. which may present risks to health and safety. Examples of confined spaces For example the following areas couldbe considered confined spaces: a tank, a silo, a vat, a hopper, a bedroom, a vault, septic tank and including a pre-manure pit, a sewer pipe, a fireplace, a manhole, a tank car or truck etc.. Risks related to the atmosphere Much of accidents and deaths that occur in confined spaces are associated with an oxygen deficient atmosphere, an explosion or fire or the presence of toxic gases or vapors.
It is therefore the first to assess risks when developing a procedure for entry. 1. The oxygen deficiency Air normally contains 21% oxygen. When the oxygen concentration is less than 19.5% in the air, it is forbidden to enter a confined space. Causes of oxygen deficiency - For oxygen consumption. - By moving the oxygen by other gases. Effects on the human body in different oxygen concentrations 23.5%: oxygen-enriched atmosphere. Upper limit from which it is forbidden to enter 21.0%: normal concentration of oxygen. 19.5%: The lowest concentration in order to enter a confined space without an SCBA or supplied-air respirator with an air supply.
12% to 16%, shortness of breath, anxiety, abnormal fatigue when making movements, concentration sufficient to maintain a flame lit. 10% to 11%: Rapid breathing and heart rate, euphoria, headache. 6% to 10%: Nausea and vomiting, inability to move freely, possibility of lossof consciousness and collapse whileremaining conscious. Less than 6%: respiratory arrest followed by cardiac arrest, death within minutes. 2. Explosions and fires Three elements are needed to cause an explosion or fire: oxygen A flammable or combustible An ignition source 2. Explosions and fires A. oxygen A normal atmosphere contains 21% oxygen. An oxygen-enriched atmosphere (from 23.5%) increases the level of material flammability. It is prohibited to enter confined spaces containing more than 23.5% oxygen. B. Flammable or combustible - Flammable gases or vapors For there to be an explosion, it is necessary that the concentration of gas or vapor is present between the lower explosive limit (LEL) and upper explosive limit (UEL). For example, methane is explosive in concentrations between 5% and 15% in air. combustible dust An explosion can also occur when the concentration of combustible dusts (eg coal dust, sawdust, etc..) Exceeds the lower explosive limit. C. Ignition sources The possible sources of ignition are: flames welding arcs hot surfaces sparks resulting from contact between two metals electric arcs a discharge of static electricity 3. Toxic substances Poor natural ventilation and low airvolume are more confined spaces that workers may be exposed to significant concentrations of contaminants. A toxic atmosphere contains gases, vapors or fumes are known to have harmful effects on the human body. The toxic effect isindependent of the concentration of oxygen.
The exposure limits of contaminants in the Manual of HSE. Table 2. Properties of some gases or vapors that can be found in confined spaces Table 3. Characteristics of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and effects of exposure on humans Physical hazards There are many physical hazards that must be considered when working in confined spaces. Burial, entrapment, crushing, falls. Inputs and outputs are difficult because of the location ordimensions of the confined space. Electric shock. Poor visibility. High temperature or very cold. Noise ratio. Radiation. Biological hazards •
Workers may come into contact with germs from sewage, soil, dust accumulation, animals (rats, insects, bird droppings, etc.). From decaying organic matter, etc.. According to the germ, the penetration can occur through the digestive tract, by mucocutaneous, and respiratory tract upon exposure to aerosols. The risk of infection exists if the subject is receptive. Biological agents in the presence of sewage Biological contamination can be represented by the triangle of proliferation below. The elimination of one of these components prevents microbial growth.
Crane safety and Treu
1. OBJECTIVE Ensure safe use of cranes and crane air. 2. SCOPE This work instruction applies to all employees and contractors engaged on work sites
3. DEFINITIONS competent Well qualified and well trained and have enough experience to perform work safely as prescribed, without or with only a minimum level of supervision. Hoists / lifting Any device or equipment used to lift or assist in lifting (eg cranes, hoists, come-along, the chain falls, the jib cranes mounted on forklifts, aerial lifts , side booms, the rétrochageurs the turfers, winches pulling, etc.).whether mobile or fixed position. Mobile Cranes Cranes that are powered by internal combustion engines or electric motors and employing booms suspended from ropes or hydraulic (eg, pneumatic cranes, crawler cranes). This doesnot include side booms. The Anti-drop plates Metal plates used to prevent stoppage of the crane or forkliftto drop more than an inch in case of a ruptured line. 4. REFERENCES Procedure - lifting equipment (cranes, forklift trucks) 5. RESPONSIBILITIES
Directorate a) Ensures that training programs are established and followed. b) Ensures that appropriate equipment is available. Supervisor or Designated Representative a) Ensure that personnel involved in the use of cranes are properly trained. b) Ensure that equipment and rigging are maintained in good condition. c) Ensure that only authorized personnel can use the equipment, hang the expense, or report the movement of charges. d) Ensure that equipment and materials are used in accordance with the sling manufacturer's requirements and regulations. Employees a) Remain outside the perimeter established for the work area unless they are directly involved in the operation. b) Comply with all warning labels and heard on the movement of charges. c) assess the safety of all operations and continue to refuse to perform any operation deemed risky.
d) report anything about the safety supervisor or designated representative. e) Perform only those services for which they are qualified. HSE Coordinator a) Ensure that every lifting operation is adequately planned and the equipment and personnel capable of performing the work safely to be affected. b) Ensure that all hazards are identified. c) Ensure the plan all lifting and lifting hazards are communicated to operators and assemblers of equipment involved. d) that work areas are properly identified to warn other workers about theEnsure dangers. e) Ensure only those directly involved in the transaction are present in the immediate vicinity. f) Ensure appropriate permits are obtained. Equipment Operator a) Includes working practices accepted and operates facilities inoperation. b) Is aware of all hazards present during lifting operations. The Editor a) Ensure that all loads are attached and detached safely. b) Ensure that all equipment is properly mounting inspected, maintained and stored. Signalman a) Before work, he confirmed that all signals are agreed and understood by all involved. b) Establish and maintain clear communication with the equipment operator to ensure the signals (manual or radio) are received. c) Keep a clear view of the load at all times by giving directions. d) Is aware of all existing hazards. d) Ensure that equipment and materials are used in accordance with the sling manufacturer's requirements and regulations. Employees a) Remain outside the perimeter established for the work area unless they are directly involved in the operation. b) Comply with all warning labels and heard on the movement of charges. c) assess the safety of all operations and continue to refuse to perform any operation deemed risky. d) report anything about the safety supervisor or designated representative. e) Perform only those services for which they are qualified.
Make a plate or a tight table is fixed (e) of the equipment and says: • The rated load capacity of the machine manufacturer; • The name of the manufacturer; • The model, serial number and year of manufacture or shipment date, and • Evaluations of charge for all possible boom angles and boom radii. Install and maintain balances and outriggers in accordance with manufacturer's specifications. Ensure that the manufacturer's rated capacity for each crane boom or mast section is marked legibly and permanently on the boom or mast. Munir equipment alarm emergency effective. Equip the crane with boom hikers positive and apparatus for limiting stop boom, where the design or operation of a crane issuch which may fall or flip backwards because of the return movement of the boom. If an arrow is attached to the boom, make sure that a shutoff ofthe arrow is fitted to prevent the arrow from being withdrawn back over the boom Ensure that all lifting hooks are fitted witha safety latch spring. 6.3 OVERHEAD TRAVELLING Ensure that a stopper limitingthe device beofinstalled oncontact the machine or on rails, tracks orpositive trolleys or to aavoid exceeding limits safety or with other equipment located on the same rail, track or trolley. Ensure that there is: • A device speed limit on the cranes in use; • A positive way to ensure that the rails, tracks or trolleys can not expand or poorly aligned; • Safety protections are installed to scan the Foreign Service, and • anti-skid plates and wheels. Make a chart on paper sealed metal tag is attached to the equipment and says: • Lifting capacity assessed by the manufacturer for the machine; • The name of the manufacturer; • The model, serial number and year of manufacture or shipment date, and • Assessments of lifting every possible angle rays of boom • A logbook up to date.
Effective Workplace Inspections
Why are workplace inspections important? Workplace inspections help prevent injuries and illnesses. Through critical examination of the workplace, inspections identify and record hazards for corrective action. Joint occupational health and safety committees plan, conduct, report and monitor inspections. Regular workplace inspections are an important part of the overall occupational health and safety program. What is the purpose of inspections? As an essential part of a health and safety program, committee members examine the workplace to: • • • • •
listen to the concerns of workers and supervisors gain further understanding of jobs and tasks identify existing and potential hazards determine underlying causes of hazards monitor hazard controls (personal protective equipment, engineering controls, policies, procedures) recommend corrective action
How do you plan for inspections? Planning is essential for an effective inspection. Aspects to Examine
Every inspection must examine who, what, where, when and how. Pay particular attention to items most likely to develop unsafe or unhealthy conditions because of stress, wear, impact, vibration, heat, corrosion, or misuse. Inspect the entire each time. Include areas where chemical no work isreaction done regularly, such as parking lots, workplace rest areas,area office storage areas and locker rooms. Various inspection teams can have separate responsibilities. This can be done in two ways: •
Each team inspects a separate area such as yards, warehouses, maintenance, offices, and production lines. Each team checks a separate class of items such as tools, buildings, utilities, materials, and mobile equipment.
The type of survey used results in reports based on areas in the workplace or on categories of hazards. Alternating from month to month may be advisable. Workplace Elements
Look at all workplace elements - the environment, the equipment and the process. The environment includes such hazards as noise, vibration, lighting, temperature, and ventilation. Equipment includes tools and apparatus producing a product or of a service. process involves howmaterials, the worker interacts with the for other elements in a series tasks orThe operations. What types of hazards do we look for in a workplace?
Types of workplace hazards include: Safety hazards; e.g., inadequate machine guards, unsafe workplace conditions, unsafe work practices. Biological hazards caused by organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Chemical hazards caused by a solid, liquid, vapour, gas, dust, fume or mist. Ergonomic hazards caused by anatomical, physiological, and psychological demands on the worker, such as repetitive and forceful movements, vibration, temperature extremes, and awkward postures arising from improper work methodsand improperly designed workstations, tools, and equipment. Physical hazards caused by noise, vibration, energy, weather, heat, cold, electricity, radiation and pressure. What type of information do I need to complete an inspection report? •
• • •
Diagram of Area
Use drawings of plant layout, or floor plans to help you draw a diagram. Divide the workplace into areas based on the process. Visualize the activities in the workplace and identify the location of machinery, equipment and materials. Show the movement of material and workers, and the location of air ducts, aisles, stairways, alarms and fire exits. Appendix A contains a sample diagram. Use several simple diagrams if the area is large. Concentrate on particular types of hazards in the area. If chemicals are the main concern, make sure the diagram emphasizes chemicals. Do the same for all other hazards, such as noise and lighting. Explain the contents of the diagram in a legend. Describe the steps of each operation. Obtain worker and supervisor comments on the diagram-they know the area better than anyone else. Equipment Inventory
Know what type of machinery or equipment is present. Review technical safety data sheets, or manufacturers' safety manuals. Read work area records to become familiar with the injury and illness potential of the equipment. Chemical Inventory
Determine which chemicals are used in the workplace and whether material safety data sheets are available. Find out whether actual and potential sources of chemical exposure are properly controlled. Make sure that all workers have received training in handling chemicals. Check that all chemicals are labeled with pertinent information (such as handling, storage, and waste disposal) according to Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) requirements. Checklists
A checklist helps to clarify inspection responsibilities, controls inspection activities and provides a report of inspection activities. Checklists permit easy on-the-spot recording of findings and comments but be careful. Do not allow the inspection team to become so intent on noting details listed thatdocuments it misses other hazardous conditions. Usecan checklists as ato basic tool.the Refer to the related for sample checklists that you use as only a guide develop a checklist for your workplace. Reports
Inspection records are important. Past inspection records show what has been identified. They also show what an inspection team concentrated on and what areas it did not inspect. The inspection report can draw attention to possible hazards. However, do not simply repeat or copy previous inspections. Use the inspection report to determine whether previous recommendations were implemented.
Are there other types of inspection reports that may be useful? The following describes three other types of inspection reports: • • •
Ongoing Pre-operation Periodic
Supervisors and workers continually conduct ongoing inspections as part of their job responsibilities. Such inspections identify hazardous conditions and either correct them immediately or report them for corrective action. The frequency of these inspections varies with the amount and conditions of equipment use. Daily checks by users assure that the equipment meets minimum acceptable safety requirements. Pre-operation checks involve inspections of new ormodified equipment or processes. Often these are done after workplace shutdowns. Periodic inspections are regular, planned inspections of the critical components of equipment or systems that have a high potential for causing serious injury or illness. The inspections are often part of preventive maintenance procedures or hazard control programs. The law specifies that qualified persons periodically inspect some types of equipment, such as elevators, boilers, pressure vessels, and fire extinguishers, atregular intervals. Should committee members have special qualifications? Committee members should have: • •
• • • •
knowledge of previous injuries and illnesses in the workplace familiarity with the hazards and with the standards, regulations, PPE, and procedures that apply to the area ability and skills to assess situations requiring corrective action training in inspection, and in handling personnel and situations knowledge of the organization's operations, work flow, systems and products proper attitudes and influence to bring about improvements
Should inspections follow a schedule?
Nobody accurately estimate how long each inspection The time dependscan on what is found, how many questions are asked, will andtake. how large and required complex the work area is. Inspections are ineffective when the given time allows for only a hasty look.
The purpose of an overall schedule is to keep the workplace free of hazards. The schedule should state: • • •
when to inspect each area or item within the workplace who carries out the inspection what degree of detail to inspect each area or item
To decide how many inspections are necessary, how long they should last and how often they are needed, consider: • •
number and size of different work operations type of equipment and work that are hazardous or potentially hazardous may require moreprocesses--those regular inspections number of shifts--the activity of every shift may vary new processes or machinery
It is often recommended to conduct inspections as often as committee meetings. Do not conduct an inspection immediately before a committee meeting but try to separate inspections and meetings by at least one week. This time allows for small items to be fixed and gives the committee an opportunity to focus on issues requiring further action. How are inspections actually done? Discuss the planned inspection route before undertaking the inspection. Review where inspection team members are going and what they are looking for. For example, during the inspection, "huddle" before going into noisy areas. This eliminates the need for arm waving, shouting and other unsatisfactory methods of communication. The committee cannot inspect as a whole. Each member should have a clipboard or note pad, and checklists their own pace.for the area or items to be inspected. They also should be allowed to proceed at For inspections, wearpersonal protective equipment (PPE)where required. If you do not have PPE and cannot get any, do not enter the area. List this as a deficiency during the inspection. Re-inspect the area when PPE is provided. Engineers, maintenance personnel and other specialists should be available to provide information on special equipment or processes. The health and safety committee may invite industrial hygienists, union health and safety specialists, or workplace managers to join the committee inspection team to help them in examining certain aspects of a work area. Supervisor Involvement
Supervisors are responsible for taking action to prevent accident and injury. Supervisors have an advantage in safety inspections because of familiarity with workers, equipment and environment. This familiarity is also a disadvantage because it can interfere with a supervisor's objectivity. Before inspecting a department or area, the committee should contact the supervisor in charge but the supervisor should not act as a tour guide. The inspection team must remain independent and make uninfluenced observations. If the supervisor of the area does not accompany the inspection team, consult the supervisor before leaving the area. Discuss each recommendation with the supervisor. Report items that
the supervisor can immediately correct. Note these on the report as corrected. This keeps the records clear and serves as a reminder to check the condition during the next inspection. Although a supervisor may interpret reporting as a criticism, committee members cannot fail to report hazards. Retain objectivity and maintain an attitude that is firm, friendly, and fair. Observation
Look for deviations from accepted work practices. Use statements such as, "a worker was observed operating a machine without a guard." Do not use information derived from inspections for disciplinary measures. Some common poor work practices include: • • • • • •
using machinery or tools without authority operating at unsafe speeds or in other violation of safe work practice removing guards or other safety devices, or rendering them ineffective using defective tools or equipment or using tools or equipment in unsafe ways using hands or body instead of tools or push sticks overloading, crowding, or failing to balance materials or handling materials in other unsafe ways, including improper lifting repairing or adjusting equipment that is in motion, under pressure, or electrically charged failing to use or maintain, or improperly using, personal protective equipment or safety devices creating unsafe, unsanitary, or unhealthy conditions by improper personal hygiene, by using compressed air for cleaning clothes, by poor housekeeping, or by smoking in unauthorized areas standing or working under suspended loads, scaffolds, shafts, or open hatches
When conducting inspections, follow these basic pri nciples: •
Draw attention to the presence of any immediate danger--other items can await the final report. Shut down and "lock out" any hazardous items that cannot be brought to a safe operating standard until repaired. Do not operate equipment. Ask the operator for a demonstration. If the operator of any piece of equipment does not know what dangers may be present, this is cause for concern. Never ignore any item because you do not have knowledge to make an accurate judgement of safety. Look up, down, around and inside. Be methodical and thorough. Do not spoil the inspection with a "once-over-lightly" approach. Clearly describe each hazard and its exact location in your rough notes. Allow "on-thespot" recording of all findings before they are forgotten. Record what you have or have not examined in case the inspection is interrupted. Ask questions, but do not unnecessarily disrupt work activities. This may interfere with efficient assessment of the job function and may also create a potentially hazardous situation.
Consider the static (stop position) and dynamic (in motion) conditions of the item you are inspecting. If a machine is shut down, consider postponing the inspection until it is functioning again. Discuss as a group, "Can any problem, hazard or accident generate from this situation when looking at the equipment, the process or the environment?" Determine what corrections or controls are appropriate. Do not try to detect all hazards simply by relying on your senses or by looking at them during the inspection. You may have to monitor equipment to measure the levels of exposure to chemicals, noise, radiation or biological agents. Take a photograph if you are unable to clearly describe or sketch a particular situation. Instant developing photographs are especially useful.
What should the final report have in it?
To make a report, first copy all unfinished items from the previous report on the new report. Then write down the observed unsafe condition and recommended methods of control. Enter the department or area inspected, the date and the inspection team's names and titles on top of the page. Number each item consecutively, followed by a hazard classification of items according to the chosen scheme. State exactly what has been detected and accurately identify its location. Instead of stating "machine unguarded," state "guard missing on upper pulley #6 lathe in North Building." Assign a priority level to the hazards observed to indicate the urgency of the corrective action required. For example: A = Major--requires immediate action B = Serious--requires short-term action C = Minor--requires long-term action Make management aware of the problems in a concise, factual way. Management should be able to understand and evaluate the problems, assign priorities and quickly reach decisions. Take immediate action as needed. When permanent correction takes time, take any temporary measures you can, such as roping off the area, tagging out equipment or posting warning signs. After each listed hazard, specify the recommended corrective action and establish a definite correction date. Each inspection team member should review for accuracy, clarity and thoroughness. What should I know about follow-up and monitoring? Review the information obtained from regular inspections to identify where immediate corrective action is needed. Identify trends and obtain timely feedback. Analysis of inspection reports may show the following: • • • •
priorities for corrective action need for improving safe work practices insight about why accidents are occurring in particular areas need for training in certain areas?
areas and equipment that require more in-depth hazard analysis The health and safety committee should review the progress of the recommendations, especially when they pertain to the education and training of employees. It is also the committee's responsibility to study the information from regular inspections. This will help in identifying trends for the maintenance of an effective health and safety program. •
Excavation and Trench Each year there are many deaths and many injuries resulting in work stoppages, which are directly related totrenching. Fatalities related to trenching are mainly caused by the collapse. Fatalities occurfrom suffocation or crushing a worker is buried in the ground collapsing. The following are the main causes of injuries resulting in work stoppages related to the digging of trenches: • Materials falling into the trench; • Handling and disposal of materials; • Falls when workers enter or leave; • Maneuver on the equipment or cuttings • Fall in the trench; • Exposure to toxic gases. The work should not be done in a trench unless another worker is working above the ground near the trench or the means of access to the trench. Definitions Excavation:
Any cut, cavity, trench or depression in the earth's surface resulting from the displacement of rock or soil. The excavation includes any work, operation or activity including the resulting disturbance of the earth, without mitation, li excavating, digging, slicing, plowing, drilling, tunneling, drill, fill,mine, a strip topsoil, level the land, move the peat, quarrying, piling, identify and assess. Trench
An excavation that is less than 3.7 m.(12 feet.) Wide at the bottom, and over 1, 5 deep, and of any length. Exposure (use) manual The use of hand shovels, other similar instruments, or a water aspirator to expose buried cables, pipes or other objects buried. Causes of collapse
Often, soil properties vary considerably from top to bottom and along atrench. Many factors such as crackle, water, vibration, time and previous excavations may affect the stability of the trench (Figure 1). Time is also a critical factor. Some trenches remain open for a long time and suddenly collapse for no apparent reason. Figure 1 - Many factors can affect the stability of the trench
Figure 2) shows the main causes of collapse. The main factors affecting the stability of the trench are: soil type, moisture, vibration, overload, and the earlier excavations, the existing foundations, and time. Soil type Soil type determines the strength and stability of the walls of thetrench. The Regulations for Construction (Ontario) described four general types of soil from dry and dense (Type 1)in wet, muddy and unable to support himself (Type 4). Identify soil types requires knowledge, skill and experience. Even the hard floors may contain defects in the layers making them unstable when excavated. Supervision should be aware of the soil types encountered in a work plan for protection accordingly. (Figure 2) shows the main causes of collapse. The factors affecting the stability of the and trench are: main soil type, moisture, vibration, overload, the earlier excavations, the existing foundations, and time.
Soil type Soil type determines the strength and stability of the walls of thetrench. The Regulations for Construction (Ontario) described four general types of soil from dry and dense (Type 1) in wet, muddy and unable to support himself (Type 4).
Identify soil types requires knowledge, skill and experience. Even the hard floors may contain defects in the layers making them unstable when excavated. Supervision should be aware of the soil types encountered in a work plan for protection accordingly. Moisture content The amount of moisture in the soil has a great effect on the strength of the soil. Once a trench is dug, the shores of the open excavation is exposed toair. The moisture content of the soil begins to change almost immediately and the strength of the walls may be affected. Over a o l ng excavation is open to the air, the greater the risk of collapse. Vibrations The vibrations from different sources can affect the strength of the trench. Often the walls of trenches are subject tovibrations from vehicle traffic or construction operations such as moving of soil, compaction, pile driving and blasting. These issues can all contribute to the collapse oftrench walls. Overload
A surcharge is a load or overweight can affect the stability of a trench. For example, the excavated earth piled near the trench can put pressure on the walls. The location of the piles of debris is important. The cuttings should be kept as far from the edge of the trench as is practical. Mobile equipment and other materials stored near the trench also add a surcharge that will affect the stability of the trench. One meter from the edge of the base of the pile of rubble is a minimum requirement. The distance should be greater for deeper trenches
The old trenches utilities, they cross or they go in parallel with the new trench,
can affect the strength and stability (Figure 3). The soil around and between these ancient excavations is very unstable. At best, it is considered a Type 3 soil - that is to say, furniture, and the internal force lower. In some unusual circumstances, it may be of Type 4 - wet, muddy and unable to support himself. This type are set slope or stop
of soil does not support unless they
Around most of the trenches and excavations, there is a rupture zone where the surcharges, changes in soil conditionsor other disturbances can cause collapse. When the foundation of a building adjacent to the trench or excavation extends to the rupture zone, this may result in a collapse (Figure 4). The soil in this situation is generally considered to be Type 3.
• Ensure that employees who expose pressurized pipes or cables are activated sufficiently trained; • Provide adequate training and equipment to locate underground facilities (eg markers of electrical cables, probes, shovels); • Provide adequate resources, including time, to ensure that any excavation work may be carried out safely and within acceptable levels of risk for the work included. HSE Supervisor
• Obtain and review all drawings and leaves the existing alignment.
• At least two working days before starting work (except for emergencies): i) Contact any other business or individual who may have buried pipe or cable in the vicinity of the proposed excavation and ask them to locate their hose, cable, or other buried structure. ii) The office sector should also be contacted when staff is not doing the excavation sector. • If the excavation is done on property not owned by the company, they should contact the landowner to explain how excavation and other work you will perform. • Complete a visual inspection of the area before the meeting before work, and identifying details such as fences, power lines, the warning signs of pipeline and soil conditions.
Work site supervisor • Collect and review all relevant schemas and alignment sheets, and conduct a visual inspection of the work site before work is initiated; • Ensure that landowners and foreign owners of cable and pipe work have been notified at least 2 working days (except in emergencies) before work is initiated; • Ensure that all piping pressurized phase cables and other buried hazards are at hand before using a shovel backloading within 60 inches of the pipe or cable; • Ensure that excavation to be left unattended are adequately fenced or barricaded; • Ensure that all company employees and subcontractors who will be involved in or affected by excavation work, knowledgeable and fully understand the place of work, schedule, risk, management systems risks and safety measures for the tasks to be performed; • Ensure that all company employees and subcontractors who will be involved in or affected by excavation work there know and understand fully their duties and responsibilities when they complete the excavation. Company employees and subcontractors
Work permit safe
A work permit should established before the earth is shaken to any excavation on safely the site of thebe company or others.
Any excavation of more than 6 m deep should be made in the written instructions of a professional engineer or a scientist ofthe earth. Written instructions are required:
• Be certified by the professional engineer or a scientist of the Earth • Be available on the site, and, • Specify the conditions of the subsoil and the support provided and the requirements of inclination (slope) The technology is also required where:
• There is a deviation from regulatory requirements; • There is a structure adjacent to the excavation; • The excavation is subject to vibration (traffic) or the hydrostatic pressure and, • The job is located on a slope greater than 33%. excavation Identification of the location of the pipe, cable or other underground hazards • Before starting the excavation, pipe, cable, or other hazards shall be located underground with a reference probe and / or pipe; • The position of buried objects must be identified on the ground by staking the center line of pipe in each direction (the pious, using color coding standards, must extend well beyond the area to be excavated) • Attend pre-work and visual inspection of the sector, and provide appropriate feedback to their supervisor or representative of the site of work provided; • Ensure that they know and understand their duties, responsibilities and safety measures to accomplish the work of excavation; • Do not let the backhoe operated within 60 inches of pipe, cable or other buried structure until it has been manually set and 30 inches from the pipe, cable or other buried structure after exposure manually; Procedures for excavation and trenching CRESU General Procedures • An analysis of safety should be carried out excavations at risk for significant and high (eg excavation near the facilities, underground and above ground piping, valves, buried cables, slopes and unstable soil conditions, water main crossing the overhead power lines) to ensure that all hazards are identified, risks are assessed and, where necessary, risk management systems are developed to execution.
• Whenever possible, before any procedure on earth not controlled by the company, re-confirm the entry and access roads with the landowner. • Locate any pipe, cable, or other hazards buried with a probe and / or positioning point of the pipe, and stake the center line of pipe in each direction (the stakes, using a standard color code, must of extend beyond the area to be excavated) • Ensure that a visual inspection of the area is performed, noting details such as fences, power lines, warning signs of pipelines, livestock and soil conditions. • When overhead power lines, ensuring that work is done in a way does notworking reduce near the srcinal support provided for the posts of energy. Contact thethat local energy companies to determine the minimum spaces. • Benchmarks, utilities, roads and edges must be protected against damage from vehicular traffic or pedestrians. • The temporary roadways, driveways, spacers (sub-beams), barricades, blankets and turns, over and around the excavations for the movement of vehicles and pedestrians must be provided and maintained. Such provisions shall comply with orders and regulations. • Access roads will remain free of vehicles and equipment clogged. Public and private roads used to haul the equipment will be kept free of deposits and excessive discharge. Planning a Pre-excavation Before the excavation activities occur, work must be carefully planned. The representative said the work site shall: • Obtain and review all drawings and leaves existing alignment; • At least two working days (except in emergencies) before work: - Contact any other company or individual who may have buried the pipe or cable in the vicinity of the proposed excavation and ask that they locate their pipes, cable, or other buried structure; - Where the staff outside the area doing the excavation, contact the office sector to ensure they are informed about the work; • If the excavation is done on a ground other than that of the company, contact the property owner to explain how excavation and other work to be done;
• Perform a visual inspection of the area prior to the meeting before work, noting details such as fences, power lines, pipeline warning signs, livestock, and soil conditions. NOTE: Agreements may be required for crossing the cables, roads, railways or
not the company. These should be properly applied before the starting day as they often take several days for reception. Meeting before work
A meeting before work (process review meeting before work) to be held with staff of the company and the subcontractor who will perform the excavation or who will be affected by the work of excavation. During the meeting before work, the work site supervisor or representative of the work siteindicated will ensure that all company personnel and subcontractors will be directly involved with or affected work planned excavation, be knowledgeable the subject and fully by, understand s the scope of work,and schedule, risk, systemson risk management and security measures for the tasks to be performed. In addition, the site supervisor of the work or the site representative of the work shown will ensure that all company personnel and subcontractors that will be directly involved with or affected by, the work planned excavation or knowledgeable about the subject and they fully understand their respective duties, responsibilities and safety measures that must be o f llowed while the excavation is about to be completed. Exposure (use) manual
• Expose the pipe, cable or other hazards buried by hand digging or vacuum cleaner water Excavation work • After the pipe was exposed by hand, a minimum distance of 1m (3pds) must be maintained between the pipe, cable and other hazards and buried the bucket (seal) of the excavation machine; • After the pipe was exposed, the minimum interval between the bucket (seal) of the excavator (extracaveuse) and the pipe must be reduced by 30cm (1pieds); • If the pipe, cable, or other buried hazards have not been exposed after a hand digging to a depth of 1 .1 m, a backhoe should be used to expand the excavation, and provide that: - The shovel extracaveuse does not dig in an area or soil has not been polled and do not exceed the depth of the excavation dug by hand - The center line of the pipe is checked using a probe or a marker of the pipe. - The machine is used, as required, to extend and tilt the excavation; - The process of manual exposure is used to dig 30cm, and a probe is used to probe
more than 60cm deep, after that the machine is used to expand the area of the excavation; - Repeat this process until the pipe is located by a probe and exposed by hand digging. • Where possible, the machines of energy that excavate the embankment should be positioned so that the operator is on the side and away from the edge of the excavation and the flat strip is positioned closer relation alongside the excavation. NOTE: A competent assistant should be provided for working with the backhoe at any time. pipe is exposed by hand, the backhoe must be held parallel and close to theUntil pipe,the cable and other hazards buried. NOTE: A supervisor or a representative of the designated work site must direct the work of the excavator machine at the site of work. Stripping of topsoil • Before excavating in an area of work, all the topsoil must be stripped and stored on site, in locations selected by the company. • During stripping operations and storage, the contractor shall ensure that the subsoil and topsoil are not mixed. • The topsoil should not be stripped when wet (saturated) The Excavation Excessive valve on Foundations, the Pipe and Installation • Excavations must be carried according to the elevations and dimensions shown on the drawings or adapted forout installation which will be installed; • Where the excavation of the foundations are laid below the levels shown on drawings, elevations, foundations should be corrected; • The base of the excavation should be balanced, dry, and shall not contain debris and loose material, before proceeding with any other work; • Excavations must be in more or less than 50mm of elevation indicated for general excavations. • Excavations for footings and beams should be graduated in more or less than 25mm of elevation required, with tolerances to the formwork; • Where excavations excess of 50mm granular lime elevation indicated should be provided to allow sufficient support for plants, pipe or valve. Protection against collapse There are three basic ways to protect workers against cave-ins of trenches: • slope
• shielding • Shoring The most fatal crashes occur at odd jobs such as short-term connections and excavations for drains and sinks. Too often, people believe that this work is not dangerous enough to require safeguards against the collapse. Fire Prevention Prevention is based on eliminating or minimizing one of the components of the FireTriangle
Prevention Other fire prevention methods include: –Heat and/or smoke detectors. –Automatic fire sprinkler systems.
–Kitchen hood systems. –Building codes and materials. –Flame retardant furnishings and materials.
Exit Drills •DYC requires monthly fire drillsconducted in all occupied locations of the facility including school buildings/areas. •The fire drills should include staff from all shifts on rotating basis (i.e. one per shift per quarter).
•Primary and secondary evacuation routes should be established, and all employees and juveniles should be drilled to use either route. Exits should be clearly marked and all signs lit • and unobstructed. Remember to RACE during a fire • R escue – rescue clients in immediate danger.
A lert – yell out “Code Red”/”Fire” (or whatever your facility implementing procedure dictates), pull fire alarm, dial emergency phone number. • C ontain – Close all doors and windows.
•E xtinguish/Evacuate – Extinguish small fires, evacuate clients, ifappropriate. Fire Extinguishers • Remember this easy acronym when using an extinguisher - P.A.S.S.
Pull the pin.
Squeeze the handle. Sweep side to side at the base of the fire.
Aim the nozzle.
NOTE: If, when using a fire extinguisher, the fire is physically larger than you can safely handle, evacuate the area and notify others byactivating the emergency pull station and call 999. Remember the Following - All Juveniles shall be instructed in emergency evacuation plans. - Smoking is prohibited in all state buildings and vehicles. - Staff may smoke only outside the buildings in designated areas. - The use of portable heating devices is prohibited in residential areas within DYC facilities. Fire Safety & Fire Extinguisher Use
How Does a Fire Work?
• Three components • Need all three components to start a fire • Fire extinguishers remove one or more of the components Types of Fires
• Class A - Wood, paper,cloth,
• Class B - Flammable liquids,
oil, gas, grease
• Class C - Electrical, energized • Class D - Combustible metals
Different Kinds of Extinguishers The 4 most common fire extinguishers: – All Purpose Water – Carbon Dioxide – Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical – Dry Powder Each kind of extinguisher has a specific use All Purpose Water • Use on CLASS A fires • Pressurized water • Pressure gauge present Carbon Dioxide • Use on CLASS B and CLASS C fires • Hard, plastic nozzle • No pressure gauge Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical • Use on CLASS A, CLASS B, and CLASS C fires • Fine powder under pressure • Pressure gauge present When NOT to Fight a Fire! •Remember to keep an exit to your back
•Only fight a fire in the incipient stage Most Important Slide NEVER fight a fire if any of the following apply: •
Don’t have the proper extinguisher or equipment
Fire has spread beyond its point of srcin
Your instincts tell you GET OUT
In the Event of Fire Pull nearest alarm station Immediately exit the building If you hear an alarm DO NOT assume it is a drill, • • • •
your life may depend on it! Building Evacuation
• Proceed to nearest exit in an orderly fashion • Assemble at least 100 feet from building • Provide emergency crews with information about people still in the building • Provide information to emergency crews about the reason for evacuation • Never re-enter a building or until to by the police department, fire department, HSEinstructed staff. Hazards and Precautions in the Visual Arts Risk Factors Amount of exposure Length and frequency of exposure Exposure conditions Toxicity Total Body Burden Multiple exposures High risk groups High Risk Groups
Children Smokers Heavy drinkers People taking medications Elderly Disabled
Examples of Disabilities Examples of Disabilities
Hearing impairment Epilepsy Emotional disturbance Physical impairment Chronic diseases heart, lung, liver, etc. Asthma and other allergies
Routes of Entry Skin contact and absorption Inhalation
Kidney and Bladder Diseases Heat stres Chemical damage to kidneys e.g., cadmium, turpentine, lead, chlorinated solvents Bladder cancer e.g., benzidine dyes Liver Diseases Hepatitis e.g., chlorinated solvents, toluene, xylene Liver cancer e.g., chlorinated solvents Central Nervous System Diseases
Solvent narcosis (intoxication) Encephalopathy - brain damage e.g., high concentrations of solvents Oxygen starvation e.g., carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide Central nervous system and heavy metals e.g., manganese, lead, mercury
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases Peripheral neuropathy Metals (e.g., lead, arsenic) Solvents (e.g., n-hexane, methyl butyl ketone) Reproductive System Damage Prior to pregnancy - effects on fertility e.g., toluene, xylene, lead, cadmium During pregnancy - miscarriages, birth defects e.g., solvents, lead, carbon monoxide After pregnancy - breast-feeding, infant exposures e.g., solvents, lead, other toxic chemicals
Precautions Know your materials Substitution Ventilation Storage and Handling Work practices and hygiene Personal Protective Equipment Medical check-ups Know Your Materials
Labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) Other references Substitutes Use least toxic chemicals Use water-based instead of solvent-based Use wet methods Avoid carcinogens Using substitutes - takes time to convert Ventilation What is adequate ventilation? not an open window! Dilution ventilation e.g., window exhaust fan Local exhaust ventilation capture contaminants
at source Dilution Ventilation For small amounts of vapors or gases Not for highly toxic vapors or gases Not for dusts or fumes Do not recirculate Local Exhaust Ventilation Hoods Ducts Fans Air cleaners Explosion-proof systems for flammable vapors and gases Examples of Local Exhaust Systems Rules for Good Ventilation Use local exhaust Provide make-up air Direction of air flow: Clean air passes by your face Don’t put head under canopy hood
Enclose process 100% exhaust to outside Don't place exhausts next to air intakes Maintenance Storage and Handling Safe storage Fire prevention Handling of chemicals Housekeeping
Spills Waste disposal Safe Storage Purchase in small amounts Location of chemicals avoid high shelves Label materials Cover containers Incompatible chemicals don’t store together (e.g. acids and ammonia)
Fire Prevention No sources of ignition near flammables Flammable storage cabinets Safety cans for solvents Self-closing waste disposal cans
Solvent waste cans Fire extinguishers
Fire Extinguishers Correct type (A, B, C, D, ABC) Class A: for ordinary combustible materials Class B: for solvents and oil Class C: for electrical fires Class ABC: multipurpose Location (near exit) Training in use Fire emergency procedures Handling of Chemicals Cover all containers Containment - glove box Transfer powders carefully Avoid liquid splashes Work Practices and Hygiene
No smoking, eating or drinking in studio area Wear separate work clothes Wash separately Eyewash fountains Do not use eyewash bottles Emergency showers Avoid electrical outlets near shower Wash-up - do not use solvents Housekeeping Do not sweep
Sweeping stirs up dust Wet mopping Can hose down if have drain with clay trap Vacuum cleaners HEPA vacuum cleaners for silica (e.g., clay)
Spills of Flammable Liquids
Shut off open flames and open windows Call fire department Shut off power from outside room Evacuate room and building, if needed Wear SCBA for clean-up
Do not pour solvents down sink Use solvent waste cans Aqueous liquids and sinks Check with local sewer codes Other sources of help
Personal Protective Equipment
Face and Eye protection Don’t work without protection Select type according to hazard Gloves Make sure is suitable for Type of liquid used Hearing protection Protective clothing Respirators Respirators Use as last resort Use NIOSH-approved respirators
Select proper types of
Cartridges and filters
Fit testing Limitations of respirators Lung and other medical problems Cleaning and maintenance Storage e.g., Ziplock plastic bag
Medical Check-ups Type of doctor Most physicians don’t have training in occupational hazards Occupational health physicians What to tell your doctor what art materials you use Medical tests Medical Tests
Blood lead tests Tests for other chemicals Rarely useful except for metals Lung function tests and chest x-rays Can detect lung problems in early stages
Hearing tests Liver and kidney function tests Used to detect liver and kidney damage
Isolation, lock and Labeling The term lock refers to methods, devices and procedures to prevent sudden, uncontrolled release of energy ofa system, a machine or piece of equipment. It means the neutralization of all the physical energy in a piece of equipment before you begin any maintenance or repair. Locks typically involve: • stop any flow of energy (for example, stop switches or valves onsupply lines); • Closure of switches and valves; • Set the machine, device or electrical power lines in adisabled state (for
example, the application blocks or blanks, or by exerting pressure hydraulic and pneumatic bleed from the lines of food) Workers may be injured when machines are turned on while doing repairs, or when power is restored after a power failure. Today, operating computer equipment means that some systems can start and stop in a much more unpredictable. Often sources of power are turned on accidentally, or open valves in error before the job is completed, resulting in serious injury and death. Therefore, it is important not only toensure that all energy sources are properly locked, but they remain locked until the job is done. If the lock is not running, could cause uncontrolled energy : • Electrocution (contact with live circuits); • Incisions, bruising, crushing, amputations, death, resulting from: - Entanglement with belts, chains, conveyors, rollers,shafts, paddle wheels (turbines); - Occlusion in bulk material from bins, silosor hoppers; - Drowning in the liquid tanks and reservoirs; • Burns (contact with the parts, materials, orequipment such as hot ovens); • Fires and explosions; • Chemical exposures (gases or liquids released from pipelines) The energy of phase (kinetic) and the stored energy (potential) from a mechanical movement, compressed gases, electricalsystems, steam, heat, cold, hydraulic pressure, chemical energy , tension springs, natural gas,air, fuel system, explosive mixtures, toxicmixtures, and liquids. This document provides an overview of the hazards and risks associated with releases of energy and how to manage and reduce them to acceptable levels. Definitions Approved: According writing to company standards, or where such standards do not exist, and in accordance with the applicable legislation concerning safety and health and best industry practices. Block
The use of equipment or physical devices to separate completely the energy source of the radius of the work (for example, double valves and purge, spade, shutter or draft)
Appointed Representative The person designated to manage and is responsible for the planning and conduct of work.
Energy The main energy sources provide the voltage to a system such as electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic energy. The energy stored or secondary remains in the system after the main source is interrupted. Energy includes electricity stored in batteries and capacitors, chemicals (volatile gasifiable) in piping systems, or the pistons moving in both directions (forward and backward) after the power energy equipment is turned off. Electricity: Electricity produced, which can be stored in batteries or capacitors, transmits energy used machinery and equipment operations. When a worker is brought into contact with electrical energy, it can cause him a shock (shock) and even death. Static electricity is a form of potential energy generated by friction between different materials. When she is not controlled by a ground safety, static electricity could cause fire hazards and explosives. Hydraulic and pneumatic: These types of energy are most often used to transmit energy from a source such as a pump or compressor, to enable the parties of equipment or machine. Hydroelectric power comes from the pressurized liquid, while the pneumatic energy comes from the pressurized air. Both types of pressure can cause injury if they accidentally escape their containment system. Mechanical Energy: This type of energy produces movement (rotation, reciprocating or transverse movement) used to activate the equipment. This type of energy is often stored in equipment that allows the activated as handwheels or blades continue to move. Without adequate procedures to lock the workers could be trapped inside, pinched or crushed by the moving parts.
Thermal and chemical energy: It is the pressurized fluid pumped along pipes or hoses to activate the equipment, usually for purposes of heating, treatment, and others. The fluids themselves can be heated or cooled, corrosive, flammable or toxic. For this reason, exposed workers could face serious burns or other damage if the energy is released. Representative Group The person representing the working group to other groups, and responsible for re-contact the working group. Isolate The work done to provide a safe work environment by blocking the energy source or equipment from the equipment or system with which it works and preventing it from being re-activated by locking and labeling . Isolation Coordinator The person responsible for conducting the activities of insulation on the site and place the labels and the computer locks the co-isolation of equipment and systems that have been maintained. Point of Isolation Each party in terms of insulation must be kept open or closed position or to achieve a clean isolation (eg, valve, draft, switch, open clamp, etc.). Scope of work All work activities, tools, equipment, facilities and personnel required to achieve the work. Locking device (padlock) Fixed a mechanism that prevents the movement of a physical device or switch to a position that is not safe.
Work permit A permit issued to cover a predetermined time to perform a specific audit work on site. The permit lists the dangers of a specific work practices and appropriate to work safely. Labels Pre-printed labels, plastic, numbered and / or marked that are used by the coordinator of insulation or other designated person or group representatives, and that place on the equipment at each point of isolation to establish a safe working radius. Responsibilities Management • Ensure that all work is planned, organized and conducted in a manner that all hazards on health and safety are identified and controlled. • Require equipment or systems are in safe condition before performing any service work, and the calibration work done with the equipment phase is performed under control of a work permit safe. • Ensure that all labels, locks and other equipment necessary for the implementation of this procedure are available and used. • Ensure that all personnel involved in maintenance work to know and understand the procedures for isolation of equipment or systems. • Assign a designated representative to plan activities in isolation, labeling and locking.
Appointed Representative • Where a meeting pre-work is required to ensure that the insulation requirements are identified and a plan of specific
isolation of the site is developed to comply with the requirements of the isolation procedure, labeling and locking. • Designer insulation coordinator who is responsible for the implementation of activities in isolation, labeling, and locking each site, and in every area of jurisdiction. • Ensure that all activities in a place of isolation are well coordinated when there is more on-site coordinator of insulation and an insulation plan Isolation Coordinator • Implement the plan for insulating the scope of work established. • Incorporate additional activities in the planof existing insulation, and review the revised plan with all groups involved. • Designer persons responsible for carrying out activities insulation distance, and establish an appropriate communication between the site of work and the points of isolation distance. • Keep all locks, keys, and labels and ensure that adequate stock is available for the activities required insulation. • Ensure that the system or equipment is isolated using methods approved insulation. • Ensure that systems or equipment are isolated • Place locks and tags the coordinator of insulation on all local points of insulation in accordance with the terms of insulation. • Ensure that all groups involved place locks and tags on all points of isolation in accordance with the terms of insulation. • Save in terms of insulation the names of all personnel involved in the work and ensure that each person is aware of
the scope of work and the state of insulation of all systems that affect them. • Complete the form of transfers of authority when a transfer of authority to another work site coordinator for the insulation, and the representative of the group of companies that abandoned the rest of the isolation process. • Advise all representatives / leaders to remove (move) their locks and tags when the work is done and remove (move) the locks and tags the coordinator of isolation after everyone else is (removed) moved. • Before re-feeding, check that all locks and tags were removed (displaced) and stored, and supplement the insulation. • Report to the control station that the system is available for the re-start. • To report on the activities of labeling and locking, and provide copies of documentation to the designated representative. Representative Group • Review the plan of isolation and participate in identifying the points of isolation. • In the presence of the coordinator of insulation, place the appropriate locks and tags on all systems in accordance with the terms of insulation. • Ensure that staff group is made aware of the state of isolation or re-supply of all systems and equipment with which they might contact. • Remove (move) locks and group labels when the work is done. Staff on site • Contact the person higher on the site and sign the plan
before making any insulation work. • appoint a representative to accompany the group (or support person) the coordinator of insulation to put locks and red tags outside the local location at each point of isolation. Employees • Review and sign the plan of isolation before starting any work on site, and point the plan when the work is done or if they leave the job site before completion of the work, with no return expected. • Follow safe work procedures and established Respect (obey) the instructions of the coordinator of insulation on the availability of the system or equipment for maintenance work. • They can not remove (move) a lock or tag placed by another person unless it is authorized by a formal transfer of authority or the supervisor of the staff or the designated representative. • They can not perform insulation work unless they are competent and authorized to do that. • Keep all locks and tags for which they are responsible, and replace them if they become worn. Proceedings Planning To protect personnel against an inadvertent release of energy before labor begins, the parties will prepare a plan of insulation to insulate the site of work, including: a) Identification of all the points necessary insulation to achieve and maintain a safe working condition at the site of work b) Establishment of the approved method of insulation to be
used at each point of isolation; c) Identification of the types and number of locking devices and tags necessary to prevent reactivation d) The order in which the isolation and reactivation must be made The designated representative will assign a qualified person as coordinator of isolation to develop and implement the plan of insulation on site. NOTE: A written plan of isolation is not required if the work is isolated and involves Only one person working on a website or any other worker is present, the insulation is removed (moved) before the staff leaves the site. The coordinator of insulation will: a) Hold a meeting to discuss before the insulation requirements; b) designating persons responsible for carrying out activities insulation distance; c) Establish appropriate communication between the work site and the points of isolation distance. All staff covered by the plan isolation sign on the plan, recognizing that it is familiar with, and is well informed and agree with the terms of insulation. Identify situations lockout Evaluate all processes, machines, energy, and work activities to identify where and when the locks are needed. The maintenance work will be the main focus needs locking. A useful source ofrecommendations information could of bethe inspections of for thehealth workplace, and committee and safety representative or collective health and safety.
List each machine, device, or process requiring a lock. Against each, list the forms of energy involved. The different forms of energy will require different procedures. More than one lock may be required for a simple machine or system. Development procedures Procedures should be written and communicated to all employees and departments. Administrative procedures for locks in general should include the following: • Supervisors should be informed about the locks in their areas; • All locks must be authorized by a work permit; • The lock must remain functional if the work is not completed by the end of the next generation (shift); • The work must be reported to the person responsible for pointing the work permit. Control procedures include the development of separate procedures, detailed and written lock for each machine identified, device or process that requires a lock at some point. The procedures should identify: • The person responsible for conducting the lock (for example, the operator, fitter fitter, electrician); • The person responsible for ensuring that the lock is done judiciously (for example, the maintenance supervisor and / or site supervisor); • Energy sources must be controlled by the lock; • Location of control panels, power supplies (including power supply box), switches, couplings, valves, sticking points, dump valve and / or delete and purge points (review patterns); • The special hazards (for example, a control wheel that rotates for minutes after the power is off, capacitors);
• The personal protective equipment to be used or worn (eg, goggles, protective electrically isolated from the foot); • The process of locking step by step (that is, who does what and when); • The test procedure to ensure that all energy sources is controlled; • The step by step procedure to remove (move) the lock.
View (Figure 1) for a list of energy forms and sources. The brief general directive lock for each form of energy can be the basis for your detailed procedures of control. Figure 1 - Forms of Energy, Energy Sources and Guidelines for lockout FORM OF ENERGY
DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF LOCKOUT
turn off power to the machine first (ie, the point of switch operation), and then the main transmission lines; breaker Power cords for the machine, lock and label the main machine; breaker Electricity engines; Disconnect switch (or remove the fuse solenoids; box, and after lock and label the box). capacitors ( Unload all systems fully capacitive (eg, stored electrical machine cycle to drain the energy of the energy) capacitor) according to manufacturer's instructions. hydraulic systems Hydraulic presses, Cut, lock (with chains, integrated locking, Fluid pressure pistons, locking or accessories) and label the Cylinders, valves, purge and hide rows if necessary hammers) Air pressure pneumatic Cut, lock (with chains, integrated locking, (lines, pressure locking or accessories) and tag valves; tanks, Bleed excess air, and if the pressure can accumulators, not be cleared block any possible The power
pressure tanks, pistons, cylinders)
movement of the machine.
Stop and block machine parts (for example, flying off (the energy of an And ensure that they can not be blades; object or material recycled) to review materials in supply moving the entire cycle of movement of the the moving object lines machine, ensure that all movements are can be bins or silos stopped. powered or coasting) Block material movement equipment in a work area, hiding as required. kinetic energy
potential energy (stored energy an object has the potential to release because of its position)
Springs (for example, in the air If possible, lower (dévolter) all parties brake cylinders); and loads suspended from the bottom Actuators; position, block parties that can be moved balances; by gravity; Charges brought; release or block spring energy top or mobile press or lifting device
Pressurized Cut, lock (with chains, integrated locking, gases and Power lines; locking or accessories) and tag valves; liquids tanks and storage Drain excess liquids and gases; hiderows (including steam containers chemicals) if necessary. Staff training
All personnel performing locks and their supervisors mustbe trained. Training should include: • Importance of locks; • The current requirements for locks; • The company policy on locks; • The forms of energy, the hazards and procedures (administrative and workrelated) that must be followed; • The importance of the following; • Mistakes to avoid locking (for example, assuming that the equipment is inoperable or that the work is so small to justify a lock); • The use and maintenance of personal protective equipment • The proper use of all tools. Implementation Insulation coordination
The coordinator of insulation will: a) Isolate the equipment or systems as described in terms of insulation using approved methods of isolation; b) Place a locking device and a label coordinator insulation on each local point of isolation, in accordance with due process and the plan of isolation; NOTE: It is recognized that not all devices that can be locked. Every effort should be made to keep each device against the movement. All deviations must be recorded in terms of insulation. Each device must be labeled c) Notify the control station about the disabling of any system or piece of equipment that would affect the operation of the facility. All automatic functions associated should be defeated and the supervisor will be informed of the state; d) Educate the people affected to complete the isolation of remote points as it is drawn in terms of insulation, and get confirmation that the work was done; e) Check the placement of a lock and a label on each local point of isolation by a representative of each working group, in terms of insulation; f) Upon completion of the activities of insulation, check that the equipment or system is indeed isolated in trying to start it or operate it, and, g) To inform all staff that the insulation is complete and work can begin. Representative Group
Each group representative: a) Review the level of insulation to ensure that his group is protected. b) Together with the coordinator of insulation, it will put a lock and a label (yellow label with red label or location outside of the site, as appropriate) on each local point of insulation to isolate the work of his group. c) Maintain a record of each point of isolation in which he / she will place a label. d) Review all activities insulation distance to confirm their accomplishment. Additional work or changes in the scope of work Further work will be required and not included in the scope of the plan of insulation, insulation coordinator should review and update the plan and meet with staff involved in the affected area, and s ensure that employees understand the changes made. Before the beginning of the new work, everyone involved must sign the plan of work. Temporary transfer of authority If it is necessary to leave the work site either temporarily or permanently, the c'ordinateur insulation must transfer to another person competent authority to implement and disband (remove) the isolation of the equipment.
The coordinator or representative group of central control to leave the job site on a permanent basis must also transfer their authority to another person authorized to make decisions. The coordinator will arrange insulation for transfers in both cases by performing the transfer of authority. Transferred the authority of a coordinator insulation The coordinator of insulation and the competent person who accepts the transfer of authority will have to: a) Review the level of insulation, including the points of isolation distance b) Perform a physical inspection of the local points of isolation c) Identify any work infinity d) To review all the problems of health and safety. If the transfer is temporary, the replacement c'ordinateur advise the coordinator who is back on any changes made in terms of insulation. The transfer of authority of a representative group The representative group will review the points and labels with replacing insulation and make sure they understand the scope of work and responsibilities. The replacement must sign in terms of insulation. Work carried When the work (or part of the work) is completed, the coordinator of insulation displace (remove) equipment insulation as is plotted in terms of insulation and: a) Advise all staff present on any other site maintenance work should be performed and must leave the work area. b) Check that all locks and tags placed by the working groups involved in the site plan of isolation are moved (removed) c) Move (remove) equipment insulation (eg, outlines, locks and tags coordinator isolation) following established procedures and plan to restart where there is a d) Ensure (arrange) for the staff to point level of insulation, and check that everyone is up to the work site. Where a part of the equipment insulation is removed (moved) to facilitate the reconnection, etc.., Insulation remaining must be adequate to maintain a safe state. e) Restore the system or equipment (including valves, switches, crushers, etc.). to their state of pre-insulated, unless a test more (more) is required f) To reduce all locks and tags to their storage location and make sure everything was done in an account (explained)
g) Inform staff of the testing and start-up that the insulation was removed (displaced). h) Complete the plan of insulation and cause a copy to the central location. i) Inform the monitoring station when the system is available. Failure in the removal (displacement) of locks and / or labels If a label or a bolt should be left in place by a person who is no longer available to perform the removal (displacement), the coordinator would contact isolation of the individual to obtain the necessary authorization for the removal (displacement).
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
What is personal protective equipment (PPE)?
PPE is equipment worn by a worker to minimize exposure to specific occupational hazards. Examples of PPE are respirators, gloves, aprons, fall protection, and full body suits, as well as head, eye and foot protection. Using PPE is only one element in a complete safety program that would use a variety of strategies to maintain a safe and healthy occupational environment. PPE does not reduce the hazard itself nor does it guarantee permanent or total protection.
What is the role of personal protective equipment (PPE)?
Hazards exist in every workplace so strategies to protect workers are essential. The priority should be the elimination and control of hazards at their source or along the path between the source and the worker. Many methods are available, and those most appropriate to the specific situation should be used. Controlling a hazard at its source should be the first choice because this method will eliminate it from the workplace altogether or isolate it from the worker. This "safe place" approach may require substitution of a material with non-hazardous ones, isolation of hazards, addition of safety features to existing equipment, redesign of the work processes, or purchase of new equipment. When the hazard cannot beremoved or controlled adequately, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be used if the work process is to continue.
How begin is planning a protection Beforedo anyIdecision made to begin or to expand strategy? a PPE program, it is important to understand the underlying principles of protection strategies. There are three elements that must be considered: • • •
protection of workers compliance with applicable laws / regulations and internal company standards technical feasibility
In practice, only a few strategies are available. These include: • • • • • • •
engineering controls material substitution process change revised work practices equipment change administrative controls use of personal protective equipment
A good comprehensive strategy considers the hazards, evaluates all possible control methods, integrates various approaches, and reexamines them frequently to ensure a safe work operation. It does these things by requiring that conscious decision-making, evaluation, and reevaluation be done at various stages throughout the program.
When is the best time to provide protection from hazards? When hazards are identified, it is useful to consider general principles of control, which can be thought of as two basic categories: "pre-contact" or "point-of-contact." Pre-Contact
Pre-contact control is the first and most important method because it prevents the hazard from reaching the worker. Pre-contact control methods include substituting materials or processes that are less hazardous, isolating hazardous processes, retrofitting existing equipment, or acquiringsafer equipment. Pre-contact control can also beachieved by providing protection to the worker with local exhaust ventilation, machine guarding, better housekeeping, safe work practices. Many Canadian jurisdictions legislate pre-contact controls. While and many hazards can be anticipated and avoided through effective engineering at the pre-contact stage, othersmay not be recognizedbefore an accident occurs. A genuine effort to identify hazards is essential so that they may be reduced or eliminated at the source.
Where pre-contact controls are not practical, feasible, or totally effective then point-of-contact controls must be used. Point-of-Contact
The point-of-contact control is important but secondary because it cannot eliminate the hazard. It only manages the hazard at the point of contact with the worker. This form of control is primarily accomplished through personal protective equipment. It is to be used when pre-contact controls are not totally effective. Many Canadian jurisdictions also legislate pointof-contact control methods.
When should PPE be used? PPE is used to reduce or minimize the exposure or contact to injurious physical, chemical or biological agents. A hazard cannot be eliminated by PPE, but the risk of injury can be eliminated or greatly reduced. For example, wearing hearing protection reduces the likelihood of hearing damage when the ear plugs or muffs are appropriate for the kind of noise exposure and they are used properly. However, hearing protection does not eliminate the noise. PPE should only be used: • • • •
as an interim (short term) measure before controls are implemented where pre-contact control technology is not available where pre-contact controls are inadequate during activities such as maintenance, clean up, and repair where pre-contact controls are not feasible or effective, and during emergency situations
How do I design a PPE program? A PPE program must be comprehensive. It requires commitment and active participation the planning, development, implementation stages from all levels: senior at management, supervisors, andand workers. A good PPE program consists of these essential elements: • • • • • • • •
workplace survey selection of appropriate controls selection of appropriate PPE fitting training management support maintenance auditing of the program
The organization's occupational health and safety policy should be a statement of principles and general rules which serve as guides to action. Senior management must be committed to ensuring that the policy and procedures are carried out. PPE programs must be, and must be seen to have equal importance with all other organizational policies, procedures, and programs. The appointment of a program coordinator will go a long way to ensuring the success of a program. The coordinator has the responsibility to ensure that each of the elements of a program is in place and operational.
In the introductory phase, a program must be planned carefully, developed fully and implemented methodically. It should be introduced gradually and in phases. The intention should be stated and time allowed for workers to become accustomed to wearing the PPE. The beneficial effects of the program should be publicized widely, and the target date set well ahead for compliance. Time should be allowed for workers to comply with the program, with no enforcement action taken until the target date. After the program is introduced, but only after adequate consultations with the workers and their representatives, the use of PPE may become a required condition of employment. It would not be acceptable to gradually phase in a PPE program when there is a need to enter hazardous atmospheres, or where failure to use the equipment poses a significant risk of major injury. The greater the workers' involvement in all stages of the program, the smoother the program will be to implement and operate. Users must be told why the PPE is to be worn and trained how to properly use it. The method of implementation affects the acceptance and effectiveness of the whole program. In addition, worker compliance with the PPE program is likely to be poor if a PPE device is unattractive, uncomfortable, or is imposed on the worker with little choice in the selection. The protection provided will be dramatically reduced if workers remove the PPE for even short periods of time. The loss of protection during the periods when the PPE is not worn may easily outweigh the protection when it is used. For example, in order to get full benefit, hearing protectors must be worn all the time during noisy work. If hearing protectors are removed only for a short duration, the protection is substantially reduced. The following table gives a maximum protection provided for noncontinuous use of an ideally fitted "100%" efficient hearing protector. For example if one takes off his/her hearing protector for 5 min in a 8-hour shift, the maximum protection will be 20 dB.
Why should I do a workplace survey first? The first step in the development of a PPE program is to identify the particular hazards at the worksite. Some of these may be obvious, but an onsite inspection should still be performed. Work practices, job procedures, equipment, workplace layout, and individual factors may play a deciding role in the type of controls recommended for a certain job. Recognizing potential hazards should include reviewing the manufacturing or other processes, maintaining an inventory of physical and chemical agents encountered routinely or periodically, examining all the different job activities of a work area, and studying the existing control measures. Every effort should be made to control all hazards, where possible, at the source. Particular attention should be paid to job requirements that may have important consequences for the PPE selected because some types ofhazards require complicated PPE solutions. For example, working with chlorine requires respiratory and eye protection because chlorine irritates both the respiratory system and the mucous membranes of the eyes. It is important to continually review Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) as part of the inspection, as they indicate the types of hazards associated with specific materials. A workplace evaluation should involve the joint health and safety committee as an integral part of the survey team.
What steps are involved in the selection of PPE? Once the need for PPE has been established, the next task is to select the proper type. Two criteria need to be determined: the degree of protection required, and •
the appropriateness of the equipment to the situation (including the practicality of its being used and kept in good repair). The degree of protection and the design of PPE must be integrated because both affect its overall efficiency, wearability, and acceptance. The following are guidelines for selection: •
Match PPE to the Hazard
There are no shortcuts to PPE selection. Choose the right PPE to match the hazard. On some jobs the same task is performed throughout the entire job cycle, so it is easy to select proper PPE. In other instances, workers may be exposed to two or more different hazards. A welder may require protection against welding gases, harmful light rays, molten metal and flying chips. In such instances, multiple protection is needed: a welding helmet, welders goggles and the appropriate respirator, or an air-supplied welding hood. Obtain Advice
Make decisions based on thorough hazard evaluation, worker acceptance, and types of PPE available. Once you have determined yourPPE needs, shop around. Discuss your basic needs with trained sales representatives then ask for their recommendations. Always ask for alternatives and check into product claims and test data. Try out PPE and test it to see that products meet all of your criteria before it is approved. Involve Workers in Evaluations
It is extremely important to have the individual worker involved in the selection of specific models. This assistance in selection can be achieved by introducing approved models into the workplace for trials in which workers have the opportunity to evaluate various models. In this way, much information regarding fit, comfort, and worker acceptability will be gained. When choosing PPE, workers should select among two or three models, allowing for personal preferences. PPE should be individually assigned. Consider Physical Comfort of PPE (Ergonomics)
If a PPE device is unnecessarily heavy or poorly fitted it is unlikely that it will be worn. Note also that if a PPE device is unattractive or uncomfortable, or there is no allowance for workers to choose among models, compliance is likely to be poor. When several forms of PPE are worn together, interactions must be borne in mind. Use every opportunity to provide flexibility in the choice of PPE as long as it meets required standards. Evaluate Cost Considerations
The cost of PPE is often a concern. Some programs use disposable respirators because they appear to be inexpensive. However when the use is evaluated over time, it is possible that a more substantial dual cartridge respirator would be more economical. Engineering controls might prove an even more cost effective solution in the long term and should be considered before PPE. Review Standards
Performance requirements of all standards must be reviewed to ensure that exposure to injury will be minimized or eliminated by using PPE. If PPE is exposed to hazards greater than those for which it is designed, it will not deliver adequate protection.
In Canada, various standards exist and the most recent should be used for guidance in the selection process. Two of the more common standards include the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the Bureau de normalisation du Quebec (BNQ). For example, the CSA Standard Z94.3-92 "Industrial Eye and Face Protectors" outlines types of eye protectors recommended for particular work hazards. It classifies eye protection according to the hazard. It allows the wide variety of PPE on the market to be slotted into various categories. A review of the plant survey and these categories will help in the choice of the proper eye protection for each specific job hazard. Check the Fit
When the selection has been made, the "fitting" component should be put in place. The key is to fit each worker with PPE on an individual basis. At the time of fitting, show each worker how to wear and maintain PPE properly. Individual fitting programs should be carried out by qualified personnel. For example, for eye protection this qualified person could be an optometrist, an optician, a manufacturers' representative or a specially trained staff member, such as a nurse. When safety glasses sit halfway down the nose, protection from the hazard of flying particles is reduced, sometimes to the point where no protection is given. The calculated degree of protection will not be achieved in practice unless the PPE is worn properly at all times when the worker is at risk. Perform Regular Maintenance and Inspections
Without proper maintenance, the effectiveness ofPPE cannot be assured. Maintenance should include inspection, care, cleaning, repair, and proper storage. Probably the most important part of maintenance is the need for continuing inspection of the PPE. If carefully performed, inspections will identify damaged or malfunctioning PPE before it is used.scratched PPE that is not performing up to manufacturers specifications, as be safety glasses with lenses that have lost their ability to withstand impact such should discarded. Procedures should be set up to enable workers to obtain replacement parts for damaged PPE, and to keep it clean. Respiratory protection devices require an elaborate program of repair, cleaning, storage and periodic testing. Wearing poorly maintained or malfunctioning PPE could be more dangerous than not wearing any form of protection at all. The workers think they are protected when, in reality, they are not. Conduct Training
No program can be complete without training to ensure the optimum use of PPE. Training should cover how to fit and wear PPE, how to adjust it for maximum protection, and how to care for it. Training can be done on an individual basis or in group meetings. Training programs should reemphasize the major goals of the program and reinforce the fact that engineering controls have been considered as the primary prevention strategy. It is not good enough to tell someone to wear a respirator just because management and/or legislation requires it. If the respirator is intended to prevent lung disorders, the workers should be informed of the hazards.
Workers and their supervisors will require training inwhen, where, why, and how to use the equipment to achieve the necessary level of protection. The workers to be trained include those who are exposed on a regular basis and others who might be exposed on an occasional basis, for example, in emergencies or when temporary work is performed in dang erous areas. The training needs and methods for all these workers are essentially the same.
Obtain Support From All Departments
Once the program is under way there will be a continuing need for involvement from management, safety and medical personnel, supervisory personnel, the health and safety committee, individual workers, and even the suppliers o f the chosen PPE. Education programs should continue on a regular basis. The most common reason for failure of a PPE program is the inability to overcome objections to wearing it. Each problem should be addressed on an individual basis. Audit the Program
As with any program or procedure implemented in an organization, the effectiveness of the PPE program should be monitored by inspection of the equipment and auditing of procedures. Annual audits are common but it may be advisable to review critical areas more frequently. It would be useful to compare present production records and safety performance to those before the program began. This comparison would help determine the success or failure of a program. Without this detailed monitoring, recommendations concerning changes to a program or retention of the program could be unsupported.
How can I promote my PPE program? The overall goal of a safer workplace is supported by a careful promotional strategy. This strategy focuses on: •
commitment by management and workers to the program and a sense of responsibility for it the reasons for the program, and how the program will work.
The success of the PPE program depends upon winning the cooperation and support of all those concerned. This can best be achieved by helping workers understand the need to wear the PPE, and by encouraging them to want to wear it rather than demanding that they do so. Success is more likely to be accomplished if it is shown that controls at the source and along the path have been addressed comprehensively and effectively. It may help to have an education program within the work environment, using seminars, films, and best of all, oneon-one discussions. The use of posters and envelope stuffers can assist in the promotion of the program, but should not be used as the only means of promotion. Many of the safety equipment suppliers may be able to help with promotion as can safety associations and government agencies. Naturally, the education process should be supported by a clear company policy that assigns responsibility for the use of PPE and which is firmly backed.
Driving safely is not always easy. In fact it is one of the most complex things that people do. It is also one of the few things we do regularly that can injure or kill us. This manual is meant to serve as a safe driving guideline to employees and contractors who drive cars and/or light trucks. Being a safe driver takes a great deal of skill and judgment. This task is even more difficult if you are just learning to drive. The purpose of the manual is to provide useful information and advice which, if implemented, should substantially reduce the risks associated with driving – preventing motor vehicle collisions, personal injuries, death and property damage. Driving is a privilege and it is the driver’s responsibility to drive safely
BE IN SHAPE TO DRIVE
Driving can easily take every ability you have. If anything happens so you are not up to your ability, you may not be a safe driver. Your ability to be a safe driver depends on being able to see clearly, not being overly tired, not driving while on drugs or alcohol, being generally healthy and being emotionally fit to drive. In other words, you are responsible for being in shape to drive safely
Vision Good vision is a must for safe driving. You drive based on what you see. If you cannot see clearly, you will have trouble identifying traffic and roadconditions, spotting potential trouble or reacting ina timely manner. Important aspects of vision are:
Side (peripheral) vision - You need to see out of the corner of your
eye. This letsyou youlook spotahead. vehicles and other trouble on either side of you while Because you potential cannot focus on things to the side, you must also use your side mirrors and glance to the side if necessary. Judging distances and speeds - Even if you can see clearly, you still may not be able to judge distances or speeds well. Many people have problems judging distances and speeds. It takes practice tobe able to judge both. It is especially important in knowing how far you are from other vehicles and judging safe gaps when merging and when passing on two-lane roads, or when judging the speed of a trainbefore crossing tracks safely.
Night vision - It is more difficult for everyone to see at night than in the daytime. Some drivers have problems with glare while driving at night, especially with the glare of oncoming headlight s. If you have
problems seeing night, very careful whenatyou do.don't drive more than is necessary and be
Because seeing well is so important to safedriving, you should have your eyes checked every year or two by an eye specialist. You may never know you have poor vision unless your eyes are tested. If you need to wear glasses or contact lenses for driving, remember to: Always wear them when you drive, even if you are only going down to the corner.
Try to keep an extra pair of glasses in your vehicle. If your regular
glasses or lost, youdo can use theglasses spare pair to drive safely. it This alsoare canbroken be helpful if you not wear all the time because is easy to misplace them. Avoid using dark glasses or tinted contact lenses at night, even if you think they help with glare. They will also cut down the light that you need to see clearly. Hearing
Good hearing can be helpful to safe driving. The sound ofhorns, sirens, or screeching tires can warn you of danger. Hearing problems, like bad eyesight, can come on so slowly that you do not notice it. Drivers who know they are deaf or have hearing problems can adjust and be safe drivers. These drivers learn to rely more on their vision and tend to stay more alert. Studies have shown that the driving records of hearing impaired drivers are just as good as those drivers with good hearing. Fatigue and Its Effect on Driving You cannot drive safely when you are tired. You do not see as well, nor are you as alert. It takes more time to make decisions and you do not always make good decisions. You can be more irritable and can get upset more easily. When you are tired you can fall asleep behind the wheel and crash, injuring or killing yourself and/or others. There are things you can do to help from getting tired on a long trip.
Try to get a normal night's sleep before you leave.
Do not leave on a trip if you are already tired. Plan your tripsso you can leave when you are rested.
Do not take any medicine that can make you drowsy. Eat lightly. Do not eat a large meal before you leave. Some people get sleepy after they eat a big meal.
Take breaks. Stop every hour or so or when you need to. Walk around, get some fresh air and have some coffee, soda orjuice. The few minutes spent on a rest break can save your life.Plan for plenty of time to complete your trip safely.
Try not to drive late at night when you are normally asleep. Your body thinks it is time to go to sleep and will try to do so.
Never drive if you are sleepy. It is better to stop and sleep for a few hours than to take a chance you can stay awake. Ifpossible, switch driving tasks with another driver so you can sleep while they drive. Effects of Drinking Alcohol and Drivin Alcohol is involved in about 40 percent g ofthe traffic collisions in which someone is killed. If you drink alcohol, even a little, your chances ofbeing in a collision are much greater than if you did not drink any alcohol.No one can drink alcohol and drive safely, even if you have been driving for many years. Because drinking alcohol and driving is sodangerous, the penalties are very tough. People who drive after drinking alcohol risk heavy fines, higher insurance rates, loss of license and even jailsentences. Why Is Drinking Alcohol and Driving So Dangerous? Alcohol reduces all of the important skills youneed to drive safely. Alcohol goes from your stomach your bloodAlcohol and toall parts of your body. reaches your brain in 20 into to 40 minutes. affects those areasItof your brain that control judgment and skill. This is one reason why drinking alcohol is so dangerous; it affects your judgment.In a way, it's like alcohol puts good judgment on hold. You do not know when you have had too much to drink until it is too late. Itis a little like a sunburn, by the time you feel it, it is already too late. Alcohol slows your reflexes and reaction time, reduces your ability to see clearly and makes you less alert. As the amount of alcohol in your body increases, your judgment worsens and your skills decrease. Youwill have trouble judging distances, speeds and the movement of other vehicles.You will also have trouble controlling your vehicle. If You Drink Alcohol, When Can You Drive? The best advice is if you drink alcohol, do not drive. Even one drink of alcohol can affect your driving. With two or more drinks inyour bloodstream you are impaired and could be arrested. It takes about one hour for your body to get rid of each alcoholic drink. There isno way to sober up quickly. Coffee, fresh
air, exercise or cold showers will not help. Time is the only thing that will sober you up. There are ways of dealing with social drinking situations. Arrange to go with two or more persons and agree that one ofyou will not drink alcohol. You can take turns being a "designated driver". Other alternatives to drivingafter drinking alcoholic beverages include using public transportation or using a taxi. The Effect of Using Other Drugs and Driving Besides alcohol, there are many other drugs that can affect a person's ability to drive safely. These drugs can have effects likethose of alcohol, or even worse. This is true of many prescription drugs and even many of the drugs you can buy without a prescription. Drugs taken forheadaches, colds, hay fever or other allergies or those to calm nerves can make a person drowsy and affect their driving ability. Pep pills, "uppers" and diet pills can make a driver feel more alert for a short time. Later however, they can cause a person to be nervous, dizzy, unable to concentrate and they can affectyour vision. Other prescription drugs can affect your reflexes,judgment, vision and alertness in ways similar to alcohol. If you are driving, check the label before you take adrug for warnings about its effect. If you are not sure it is safe to take the drug and drive, ask your doctor or pharmacist about any sideeffects. Many drugs multiply the effects of alcohol or have other side effects.You should read the warnings with your medicine, or talk to your pharmacist before you drink and use medicine at the same time. This combination not only affects your ability to be a safe driver but could cause serious health problems, even death. Illegal drugs frequently affect your ability to be a safedriver. For example, studies have shown that people who use marijuana make more mistakes, have more trouble adjusting to glare and get arrested for traffic violations more than other drivers. Health Problems and Their Effects onDriving Many health problems can affect your driving - a bad cold, infection or virus. Even little problems like a stiff neck, a cough or a sore leg can affect your driving. If you are not feeling well and need to go somewhere, let someone else drive. Some conditions can be very dangerous:
Epilepsy - As long as it is under medical control, epilepsy generally is not dangerous.
Diabetes - Diabetics who take insulin should not drive when there is any chance of an insulin reaction, blackout, convulsion or shock. Such a situation could result from skipping a meal or snack or rom f taking the wrong amount of insulin. It also might be agood idea to have someone else drive for you during times when your doctor isadjusting your insulin dosage. If you have diabetes, you should have your eyes checked regularly for possible night blindness orother vision problems.
Heart condition - People with heart disease, high blood pressure or circulation problems, or those in danger of a blackout, fainting or aheart attack, should not get behind the wheel. If you are being treated by a doctor for a heart condition, ask if the condition could affect your driving ability.
Emotions Emotions can affect on your ability todrive safely. You may not be able to drive well if you are overly worried, excited, afraid, angry or depressed . If you are angry or excited, give yourself time to cool off. If necessary take a short walk, but stay offthe road until you have calmed down.
you mind are worried, or upset about something, try to keepIfyour on yourdepressed, driving. Some find listening to the radio helps. If you are impatient, allow extra time foryour driving trip. By leaving a few minutes early, instead of speeding to your destination, you will avoid a speeding ticket and reduce your chances of a collision. Road Rage
Today, heavy traffic and tight schedules are normal in large cities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Unfortunately, this causes stress and anger amongst some drivers who express their anger with aggressive behaviour on the roadways. When you see other drivers around you acting or reacting in anger, distance yourself from the situation, physically and mentally. Don't make eye contact. Body movements and gestures can provoke an angry response from another driver. Slow down, over, or do whatever you safely canother toputdrivers. yourself out of danger. Yourmove courtesy may encourage the same from
If you feel you are being followed or harassed by another driver, seek help. Exit only in an area where there are other people and open businesses around you. If you have a cellular phone, use it to call the police. BEFORE YOU DRIVE
Your safety and that of the public, can depend on what you do before driving, including adjusting the seat and mirrors, using safety belts,checking your vehicle, locking your doors, maintaining a clear view and securing items in and on the vehicle. Check the Vehicle Your safety starts with the vehicle you are driving. It is the duty of drivers to make certain that the vehicles they drive are safe to operate. A vehicle that is not working properly is unsafe and costs more to run than onethat is maintained. It can break down or cause a collision. Ifa vehicle is not working well, you might not be able to get out of an emergency situation. A vehicle in good working order can give you an extra safety margin when you need it most. You should follow the recommendations for routine vehicle maintenance as it is described in your vehicle owner's manual. You can do some maintenance yourself and some must be done by a qualified mechanic. A few simple checks will help prevent trouble on the road. Braking system - Only your brakes can stop your vehicle. It is very dangerous if they are not working properly. If they do not seem to be working properly, are making a lot of noise, smell funny or the brake pedal goes to thefloor, have a mechanic check them. Lights - Make sure that turn signals, brake lights, tail lightsand headlights are operating properly. These should be checked from the outsideof the vehicle. Brake lights tell other road users that you areslowing down or stopping and turn signals tell them you are turning.
An out-of-line headlight can shine where it does not help you and may blind other drivers. If you are having trouble seeing at night or if other drivers are constantly flashing their headlights at you, have a mechanic check the headlights. Windshields - Damaged glass can easily break in a minor collision or when
something hits the windshield. Have a damaged windshield repaired or replaced.
Windshield wipers - Windshield wipers keep the rain off the windshield. Some vehicles also have wipers for rear windows and headlights. Make sure all wipers are in good condition. If the blades are not clearing water from the windshield, replace the wipers. Tires - Worn tires can increase your stopping distance and make turning more difficult when the road is wet. Unbalanced tires and low pressure cause faster tire wear, reduce fuel economy and make the vehicle harder to steer and stop. If the vehicle bounces, the steering wheel shakes or the vehicle pulls toone side, have a mechanic check it.
Worn tires can cause hydroplaning, and increase the chance of a flat tire. Check tire air pressure with an air pressure gauge when the tires are cold. Check the vehicle owner's manual or the side of the tires for proper pressure. Steering system - If the steering is not working properly, it is difficult to control the direction you want to go. If the vehicle is hard to turn or does not turn when the steering wheel is first turned, have the steering checked by a mechanic. Suspension system - Your suspension helps you control your vehicle and provides a comfortable ride over varying road surfaces. If the vehicle continues to bounce after a bump or a stop,or is hard to control, you may need new shocks or other suspension parts. Have a mechanic check it. Exhaust system - The exhaust system helps reduce the noise from the engine,
helps cool the hot gases coming from theengine, and moves these gases to the rear of the vehicle. Gases from a leaky exhaust can cause death inside a vehicle in a very short time. Never run the motor ina closed garage. If you sit in a vehicle with the motor running for a long time, open a window. Some exhaust leaks are easily heard but many are not. This is why it is important to have the exhaust system checked periodically. Engine - A poorly running engine may not start; has poor fuel economy; pollutes the air; loses power that is needed for normal driving and emergencies; and, could stall when you are on the road causing you and traffic a problem. Follow the maintenance procedures which are recommended in the owner's manual. Loose objects - Make sure that there are no loose objects in the vehicle that could hit someone in the event of a sudden stop or crash. Make sure there are
no objects on the floor that could roll under the brake pedal and prevent you from stopping the vehicle.
Horn - The horn may not seem like it is important for safety, but as a warning device, it could save your life. Only use your horn as a warning to others Clean Glass Surfaces
It is important that you are able to see clearly through the windows, windshield and mirrors. Here are some things you can do to help. Keep the windshield clean. Bright sun or headlights on a dirty windshield make it hard to see. Carry liquid cleaner and a paper or cloth
towel so you can clean your windshield whenever it is necessary. Keep your window washer bottle full. Keep the inside of your windows clean, especially if anyone has been smoking in the vehicle. Smoking causes a film to build up on the inside glass.
Do not hang things from your mirror or clutter the windshield with decals. They could block your view.
Keep the headlights, backup, brake and tail lights clean.Dirt on the lenses can reduce the light by 50 percent.
Adjust Seat and Mirrors You should always check and adjust your seat and mirrors before you start to drive. Adjust your seat so that you are high enough to clearly see the road. If necessary, use a seat cushion. Do not move the seat so far forward that you cannot easily steer. You should sitso the air bag will hit you in the chest if there is a collision. Also, sit so you can touch the floor below the brake pedal with your feet.
Adjust your rear view mirror and side mirrors. You should be able to see out the back window with the rear view mirror. Adjust the side mirrors so that you can see a small amount of the side of your vehicle when you lean forward slightly. This will help you see the trafficbehind you.
Head restraints are designed to prevent whiplash if you are hit from behind. They should be adjusted so the head restraint contacts the back of your head.
Use Seat Belts and Child Restraints Always fasten your seat belt and make sure all passengers are properly using seat belts, child car seats, or booster seats. It is important that you and your passengers use safety belts. Seat belts provide the most positive and simple solution for reducing injuries and fatalities when motor vehicle collisions occur. Studies have shown that if you are in acollision while using safety belts, your chances of beinghurt or killed are greatly reduced. Seat belts keep passengers in their seat. They prevent people from being thrown out of the vehicle or colliding with the vehicle interior, windshield and with other passengers in the vehicle. If your vehicle has a two-part seat belt system, be sure to wear and properly adjust them both, with the shoulder belt over your shoulder and not under your arm or behind your back. The lap belt should be across the hips, not the abdomen. Wearing either part alone greatlyreduces your protection. If you have an automatic shoulder belt, be sure to buckle your lap belt as well. Otherwise, in a collision you could slideout of the belt and be hurt or killed. In addition to protecting you from injury as adriver, seat belts help you keep control of the vehicle. If you are struck from the side or make a quick turn, the force could push you sideways. You cannot steer the vehicle ifyou are not behind the wheel. Seat belts must be worn even if the vehicle isequipped with air bags. While air bags are good protection against hitting the steering wheel, dashboard or windshield, they do not protect you if you are hit from the side or rear or ifthe vehicle rolls over. And, an air bag will not keep you behind the wheel in these situations. Children under the age of three must be properly secured in an approved child car seat. Children should be secured in the rear seat. Never secure a child in the front passenger side, especially if your vehicle has an air bag.If you are in a crash and the bag opens, your child could be seriously injured or killed. Requirements for proper restraint of children: • • • •
one year and under, or 9 kg. and under, in a rear-facing child car seat, one to four years and from 9 to 18 kg. in a forward-facing child car seat, four to six years and between 18 and 28 kg. in a booster seat, and six years and older or over 28 kg. with seat belts or a booster seat.
If the vehicle has an active passenger side air bag system, children under six or who weigh less than 28 kg. must ride in the back seat.
Studies have shown that if you are in acollision while using seat belts, your chances of being hurt or killed are greatly reduced. Some people still have bad informationabout using seat belts. For example, some people think that: "Seat belts can trap you inside a car."
Wrong. It takes less than a second to undo a seat belt. Collisions where a vehicle catches fire or sinks in deep water and you are trapped, seldom happen. Even if they do, a seat belt may keep you from being knocked out. Your chance to escape will be better if you are conscious. "Seat belts are good on long trips, but I do not need them if I am driving around town."
Wrong. Over half of all traffic deaths happen within 25 miles of home. Many of them occur on roads posted at less than 70km/h. "Some people are thrown clear in a collision and walk away with hardly a scratch."
Wrong. Your chances of surviving a collision are much better if you tsay inside the vehicle. Seat belts can keep you from being thrown out of your vehicle, into the path of another car. "If I get hit from the side, I am better being thrown across the car, away from the crash point."
Wrong. When a vehicle is struck from the side, itwill move sideways. Everything in the vehicle that is not fastened down, including the passengers, will slide toward the point of the crash, not away from it. Wrong. Even at 40 km/h, the force of a head-on collision is the same as pedaling a bicycle full-speed into a brick wall or diving offa three-story building onto the sidewalk. No one can brace for that RULES OF THE ROAD
There are traffic rules that say where, when and how fast you can drive. These rules help keep traffic moving safely. Rules of the roadinclude traffic control devices, right-of-way, and parking rules. General Rules General driving - If you back your vehicle, look carefully and move slowly. Drivers do not expect a vehicle to be backing towards them and may not
realize it until it is too late. If you miss your turn or exit do not back up, but go on to the next turn or exit or where you can safely turn around. Do not stop in travel lanes for any reason (confusion, breakdown, letting out a passenger). Keep moving until you can safely pull offthe road. On a road with two lanes traveling in opposite directions, you must drive on the right side of the road except when you are legally passing another vehicle. On a road with two or more lanes traveling in the same direction, stay in the right exceptif to pass. road with three or more lanes traveling in the samelane direction, there is On a lotaof entering or exiting traffic, use the center travel lane. Unless directed to do so by officials or signs, never drive on the shoulder of the road. Passing - On roads with two or more lanes traveling in the same direction, use the right lane for slower speeds and the middle and left hand lanes for higher speeds and for passing. If you pass on the right, the other driver may have difficulty seeing you and might suddenly change lanes in frontof you. Never pass on the shoulder, whether it is paved ornot. Other drivers will never expect you to be there and may pull offthe road without looking. Turning - Where there are no signs or lane markings to control turning, you should turn from the lane that is closestto the direction you want to go and
turn into the lane closest to the one you came from. This way, you willcross the fewest lanes of traffic. When making turns, go from one lane to the other as directly as possible without crossing lane lines orinterfering with traffic. Once you have completed your turn, you can change to another lane if you need to. Right-Of-Way There will be many times when you will need to slow down or stop your vehicle to allow another vehicle, pedestrian, or bicyclist to continue safely. You must do everything you can to prevent striking a pedestrian or another vehicle, regardless of the circumstances. For their own safety, pedestrians should walk toward oncoming traffic and off the roadway. You should be ready to yield to pedestrians in case they step into your path.
Parking Drivers are responsible for making sure that their vehicle is not a hazard when it is parked. Whenever you park, be sure it is in a place that is far enough from any travel lane to avoid interfering with traffic and visible to vehicles approaching from either direction. •
Always park in a designated area if possible.
Always set your parking brake when you park. Leave the vehicle in
gear if it has a manual transmission or in "park" if ithas an automatic transmission. Check traffic before you open the door. Get outof the vehicle on the curb side if you can. If you have to use the street side, check traffic before you get out. Shut the door as soon as you can after getting out.
Never leave the ignition key in a parked vehicle. It isa good habit to lock the doors whenever you leave your vehicle.
Never leave children under 16 years of age alone in a parked car with the engine running.
If you must park on a roadway, park your vehicle as far away from traffic as possible. If there is a curb, park as close to it as you can Parking on a Hill When you park on a hill: 1. With a curb and are facing uphill, set your parking brake and turn your steering wheel away from the curb. This way, if your vehicle starts to roll, it will roll into the curb.
2. when there is no curb, set your parking brake and turn your steering wheel toward the edge of the road. This way, ifyour vehicle starts to roll, it will roll away from traffic. 3. facing downhill, set your parking brake and turn your steering wheel toward the curb.
Parallel Parking When you parallel park, you should park within 12 inches of the curb. Here are the steps to parallel parking
Stop even with the car ahead. Turn the wheel sharp right and back slowly toward the car behind.
When clear of the car ahead, turn the wheel sharp left and back slowly tothe car behind
Turn the wheel sharp right and pull toward the curb in the center of the parking space
DEFENSIVE (SAFE) DRIVING
No driver manual can teach you how to operate a vehicle or be a safe driver. Driving requires skills you can only gain through instruction and practice. The following offers some basic driving information. Starting Check the vehicle owner's manual to determine the best way to start the vehicle. Make sure the parking brake is on before you start the vehicle. Ifthe vehicle hasmust a manual transmission, must not behas in gear and in some vehicles the clutch be depressed. For aitvehicle that an automatic transmission, you must put the shift selector in"park." Accelerating When you are in the process of moving your vehicle, the ability tocontrol your speed depends upon good accelerator technique. Accelerate gradually and smoothly. Trying to start too fast can cause your wheels to spin, particularly on slippery surfaces and cause the vehicle to slide. With amanual-shift vehicle, practice using the clutch and accelerator sothe engine does not overrev or stall when shifting gears. You should accelerate smoothly until the vehicle reaches the correct speed (posted speed limit at maximum).Do not speed up and slow down unnecessarily. Driving too slow may create a driving hazard for other drivers.
Your hands should be placed on opposite sides of the steering wheel. This position is comfortable and on high speed roads it allows you to make turns without taking your hands off the wheel. It alsopositions your hands out of the way of the air bag. Leaning against the door, putting your elbow out the window, or driving with one hand can keep you from reacting quickly in an emergency. Look well down the road and on both sidesof the road, not just at the road in front of your vehicle. Look for traffic situations where you willneed to steer before you get to them. This way, you have time to steer smoothly and safely. When turning sharp corners, turn the steering wheel using the "hand-overhand" technique. Never shut off your ignition switch while your vehicle is moving. Most vehicles are now equipped with a locking device on your steering wheel. If you turn off
your ignition switch, the steering wheel will lock and you will losecontrol of the vehicle (will not be able to steer the vehicle). Speeding and Speed Limits The best way to avoid speeding is to know how fast you are going. Check the speedometer often. People are not very good at judging how fast they are going. It is easy to be traveling much faster than you think. This isespecially true when you leave high speed roads and are driving on much slower local roads. Obey speed limit signs. They are there for your safety. Stopping Few drivers are fully aware of the time and distance ittakes to bring a vehicle to a full stop. Drivers tend to make errors in their decisions for stopping which may result in a collision with another vehicle or object. There are three factors which determine how long it takes for a vehicle to stop and for the distance covered before the vehicle stops. The factors are:
Perception time is the time it takes for a driver to see a situation and understand that there is a reason to stop the vehicle. The average perception time is approximately ¾of a second. Perception time andthe distance travelled in this time will vary from driver to driver. Less experienced drivers are often slower to realizethat a danger exists. The perception time and distance travelled will vary greatly depending upon the driver’s visual search; level of attention; decision making capability; degree of fatigue; and, use of alcohol or drugs. Reaction time is the time it takes the driver to physically react by removing the foot from the accelerator pedal to the brake pedal. Average reaction time is ¾ of a second. Braking time is the time it takes a vehicle to stop once the brake pedal has been pressed. Braking time will vary greatly dependingupon the speed of the vehicle; vehicle size; the condition of the vehicle; the type and condition of the tires; the type and condition of the brakes; the road type and condition; and, environmental conditions (wet or dry).
The total stopping distance is the sum of the perception distance, the reaction distance and the braking distance. The following chart illustrates the minimum stopping distances forvarious speeds. The stopping distances are averages for stopping on smooth, dry pavement.
Be alert so that you know well ahead of time when you will have to stop. Stopping suddenly is dangerous and usually points to a driver who was not paying attention. When you brake quickly, you could skid and lose control of your vehicle. You also make it harder for drivers behind you tostop without hitting you. Try to avoid panic stops by seeing events well in advance. By slowing down or changing lanes, you may not have to stop at all and if you do, you can make a more gradual and safer stop
Safe Working at Heights Portable Ladders. What should you know about portable ladders before using them?
Falls from portable ladders are a major source of serious injury. Be aware of the hazards and take proper precautions to prevent falling. What should you do before using a portable ladder? Inspect the ladder before and after each use. Reject and tag any ladders that have defects. Have faulty ladders repaired or thrown out. Use a ladder designed for your task. Consider the strength, type, length and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA)approval. Get help when handling a heavy or long ladder. Keep ladders away from electrical wires. Tie off ladders at the top and secure bottom to prevent them from slipping. Set up barricades and warning signs when using a ladder in a doorway or passageway. Before mounting a ladder, clean the boot soles if they are muddy or slippery. Avoid climbing with wet soles. Ensure that footwear is in good condition. Face the ladder when going up or down and when working from it. Keep the centre of your body within the side rails. • •
• • • • •
Refer to safety regulations for specific measurement requirements. What should youaavoid using a portable Do not use ladderwhen in a horizontal position asladder? a scaffold plank or runway. Do not carry objects in your hands while on a ladder. Hoist materials or attach tools to a belt. • •
Do not work from top three rungs. The higher a person goes on a ladder, the greater the possibility that the ladder will slip out at the base. Do not use items such as a chair, barrel or box as a makeshift ladder. Do not use a portable ladder when other equipment is available. Replace a ladder with a fixed stairway or scaffold. Do not join two short ladders to make a longer ladder. Side rails are not strong enough to support the extra load. Do not paint wooden ladders. Defects may be hidden by the paint. Wood preservatives or clear coatings may be used. How should you set up the ladder? Place the ladder feet 1/4 of the ladder's working length (e.g., foot to top support point) away from the base of the structure (e.g., for every 4 feet high, the base of the ladder should be out 1 ft; that means one horizontal foot from the support point). Extend the ladder at least 1 m (3 ft) above the landing platform. Place the ladder on a firm, level footing. Use a ladder with slip-resistant feet or secure blocking, or have someone hold the ladder. Rest both side rails on the top support and secure ladder to prevent slipping. What should you know about climbing portable ladders? •
• • •
Check for overhead electrical wires before setting up a ladder. Clear area around base and top of the ladder of debris, tools and other objects. Tie off yourself with a safety harness when working 3 m (10 ft) or more off the ground or when working with both hands. Ensure that only one person is on a single-width ladder. Only one person is allowed on each side of a double-width ladder. Maintain three-point contact by keeping two hands and one foot, or two feet and one hand on the ladder at all times.
Grasp the rungs when climbing a ladder, not the side rails. If your foot slips on a ladder, holding onto rungs is easier than holding onto the side rails. • •
Wear protective footwear with slip-resistant soles a nd heels. Ensure that all electrical equipment used during ladder work is in good condition and properly grounded. Rest frequently to avoid arm fatigue and disorientation when the work requires you to look up and reach above your head. Drape your arms over a rung and rest your head against another rung or side rail if you become dizzy or panicky. Climb down slowly. What should you avoid when climbing portable ladders? Do not use a ladder in passageways, doorways, driveways or other locations where a person or vehicle can hit it. Set up suitable barricades or lock the doors shut.
• • • • • • •
Do Do Do Do Do Do Do
not not not not not not not
place a ladder against flexible or moveable surfaces. straddle the space between a ladder and another object. erect ladders on boxes, carts, tables, scaffold or other unstable surfaces. use ladders on ice. stand a ladder on any of its rungs. Ladders must rest on both side rails. allow anyone to stand under a ladder. overreach from a ladder; move as required.
Do not use any type of ladder near electrical wires
Securing Portable Ladders How do you secure portable ladders?
Rest the top of the ladder against a solid surface that can withstand the load. Attach a ladder stay across the back of a ladder where a surface cannot stand the load. Extend the stay across a window for firm support against the building walls or window frame. Guard or fence off the area around a ladder erected in an area where persons have access. Secure the ladder firmly at the top to prevent it from slipping sideways or the foot from slipping outwards.
Station a person at the foot of a ladder when it is not possible to tie at the top or secure it at the foot. This is effective only for ladders up to 5 m (16 ft.) long.
Ensure that the person at the foot of the ladder faces the ladder with a hand on each side rail and one foot resting on the bottom rung. Attach hooks on top of ladder rails where ladder is to be used at a constant height.
Do not rest a ladder on any rung. Only the side rails are designed for this purpose. Secure the base of a ladder to prevent accidental movement. Securing a ladder at the foot does not prevent a side slip at the top. Use ladders equipped with non-slip feet. Otherwise nail a cleat to the floor or anchor the feet or bottom of the side rails. •
Extension Ladders What should you do to secure safety when using extension ladders?
Place ladders on a firm, level surface and ensure the footing is secure. Erect extension ladders so that the upper section rests on (e.g., in front of) the bottom section. This means the bottom section "faces" a wall or other supporting surface (see figures below). Place the ladder feet so that the horizontal distance between the feet and the top support is 1/4 of the working length of the ladder. The ladder will be leaning at a 75° angle from the ground. • •
Raise and lower ladders from the ground. Ensure that locking ladder hooks are secure before
Erect ladders so that a minimum of 1 m (3 ft) extends above a landing platform. Tie the top at support points. Where a ladder cannot be tied off at the top, station a person at the foot to prevent it from slipping. This method is only effective for ladders up to 5 m (16 ft) long. The person at the foot of the ladder should face the ladder with a hand on each side rail and with one foot resting on the bottom rung. Leave all tie-off devices in place until they must be removed before taking the ladder down. Maintain the minimum overlap of sections as shown on a ladder label. Refer to safety regulations.
What should you avoid when using extension ladders? Do not use ladders near electrical wire. Do not set up or take a ladder down when it is extended. Do not overextend. Maintain minimum overlap of sections. Do not climb higher than the fourth rung from the top of a ladder. Do not use ladders on ice, snow or other slippery surfaces without securing ladders' feet. Do not extend top section of a ladder from above or by "bouncing" on a ladder. Do not leave ladders unattended. • • • • •
What should you do to avoid overexertion while setting up an extension ladder?
When setting up an extension ladder, use the following method to avoid straining muscles or losing control of a ladder. With ladders weighing more than 25 kg (55 lb), or where conditions complicate the task, have two persons set up a ladder, step by step, as follows:
• • •
Lay a ladder on the ground close to intended location. Brace ladder base using helpers' feet. Grasp the top rung with both hands, raise the top end over your head and walk toward the base of a ladder. Grasp the centre of the rungs to maintain stability. Move the erect ladder to the desired location. Lean it forward against the resting point.
One person can erect a short ladder, step by step as follows: • • • •
Place the bottom of a and ladder against the base of ato building or stationary Lift the top of ladder, pullfirmly upwards to raise a ladder a vertical position. object. Transfer a ladder to its required position when it is erect. Keep a ladder upright and close to the body with a firm grip.
The method for lowering any ladder is the reverse procedure of erecting it.
Step Ladders What should you do when using a stepladder?
• • •
Use a stepladder that is about 1 m (3 ft) shorter than the highest point you have to reach. This gives a wider, more stable base and places shelf at a convenient working height. Open the stepladder spreaders and shelf fully. Check stability. Ensure that all ladder feet are on a firm, level and non-slippery surface. Place a stepladder at right angles to the work, with either the front or back of the steps facing the work. Keep the stepladder close to the work. Avoid pushing or pulling stepladders from the side. Repeated sideways movement can make ladders wobbly since they are weaker or less stable in those directions.
Face the stepladder when climbing upor down. Keep your body centered between side rails. You have climbed too high if your knees are above top of the stepladder or if you cannot maintain a handhold on the ladder. Maintain a firm grip. Use both hands when climbing.
What should you avoid when using a stepladder? Do not overreach. Move a stepladder when needed.
Do not "shift" or "walk" a stepladder when standing on it. Do not stand, climb, or sit on the stepladder top or pail shelf. Do not overload. Stepladders are meant for one person.
Do not use a stepladder as a brace or as a support for a work platform or plank.
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• • •
Do not climb a stepladder that is leaning against a wall. Use a straight ladder instead. Do not use stepladders on slippery surfaces Do not use stepladders on soft ground where one leg may sink farther into the ground than others. Do not place stepladders on boxes, unstable bases or on scaffolds to gain additional height. Do not climb the back of a stepladder. Do not push or pull stepladders sideways. Do not use ladders in passageways, doorways, driveways or other locations where a person or vehicle can hit it. Set up suitable barriers or lock doors shut.
Ladder Storage and Handling What is the proper way to store ladders? Return ladders to storage area after use. •
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Store ladders where they are protected from the weather. Support ladders horizontally on racks. To prevent sagging, support ladders every 2 m (6 ft). Keep ladders clean and free of foreign materials. Ensure that storage areas are easy to reach. Keep wooden ladders in a well-ventilated location, away from dampness and excessive heat. Avoid long overhangs beyond support points when transporting ladders on vehicles. Pad racks on vehicles with soft material to reduce wear and road shocks. Tie ladders to each support point to reduce damage. Mark ladders which overhang vehicles with a red or orange flag.
Grasp ladders near the centre when carrying them. Use caution when carrying ladders through passageways, doorways or any place where your view is obstructed.
Use a partner to help carry long or heavy ladders. Ensure that you and your partner are on the same side when carrying a ladder. Stay in step. Work out in advance any hand or voice signals to coordinate stopping or changing direction. •
What should you avoid when storing ladders? Do not hang ladders from rails or rungs. Do not store materials on ladders. Do not expose fibreglass ladders to excessive temperatures (above 93°C or 200°F). Do not hold the front of ladders at head level when carrying them. Do not expose plastic-reinforced ladders to excessive sunlight. Ultraviolet light may cause the plastic resins to degrade. If the strength of the ladder is questionable, replace the ladder. • • • • •
Fixed Ladders When should you inspect fixed ladders? Inspect the fixed ladder before each use. Inspect fixed ladders periodically, onceevery three months. Report any defect promptly. • • • •
Keep the record of every inspection. What should you check for when inspecting access ladders? loose, worn and damaged rungs or side rails damaged or a corroded cage corroded guard, bolts and rivet heads damaged or corroded handrails and brackets on platforms broken or loose anchorages weakened or damaged rungs on brick or concrete slabs defects in climbing devices, including loose or damaged carrier rails or ropes slippery surfaces from oil and ice clutter obstructing the base of ladder or platform What should you do when climbing a fixed ladder? • • • • • • • • •
Wait until the other person has exited before ascending or descending.
Use the appropriate safety devices (e.g., restraint belt, traveling fixture). Maintain three-point contact by keeping two hands and one foot, or two feet and one hand on a ladder always. Face ladder and use both hands to grip the rungs firmly. Place feet firmly on each rung. Wear footwear with heels. Ensure that footwear is in good condition. Clean muddy or slippery boot soles before mounting a ladder. Rise or lower tools and materials using a hand-line. • •
• • • •
What should you avoid when climbing a fixed ladder? Avoid climbing with wet soles Do not carry tools or materials in your hand while climbing. Carry small tools in a tool pouch. Do not jump from a ladder. Check footing before descending a ladder. • •
Do not hurry up or slide down a ladder.
When should you inspect ladders? Inspect new ladders promptly upon receipt. Inspect ladders before each use. Check the condition of ladders that have been dropped or have fallen before using them again. What should you look for when inspecting any ladder? missing or loose steps or rungs (they are loose if you can move them by hand) damaged or worn non-slip feet loose nails, screws, bolts or nuts loose or faulty spreaders, locks, and other metal parts in poor repair rot, decay or warped rails in wooden ladders cracks and exposed fibreglass in fibreglass ladders cracked, split, worn or broken rails, braces, steps or rungs sharp edges on rails and rungs rough or splintered surfaces corrosion, rust, oxidization and excessive wear, especially on treads twisted or distorted rails. Check ladders for distortion by sighting along the rails. Using a twisted or bowed ladder is hazardous. missing identification labels What other things should I look for when inspecting stepladders? wobble loose or bent hinges and hinge spreaders broken stop on a hinge spreader What should you look for when inspecting extension ladders? loose, broken or missing extension locks defective locks that do not seat properly when ladder is extended sufficient lubrication of working parts defective cords, chains and ropes missing or defective pads or sleeves • • •
• • • • • • • • • • •
• • •
• • • • •
What should do after inspecting Tag anyyou defective ladders and takeany themladder? out of service. Clean fibreglass ladders every three months. Spray lightly with a clear lacquer or paste wax. Protect wooden ladders with a clear sealer or wood preservative. Replace worn or frayed ropes on extension ladders. Lubricate pulleys on extension ladders regularly. • •
• • •
What are some things you should not do after inspecting ladders? Do not make temporary or makeshift repairs. Do not try to straighten or use bent or bowed ladders . • •
WORK CLOSE TO AIR LINES ELECTIVES 1. OBJECTIVES Ensure that all hazards for personnel, equipment, or materials in motion, under or near overhead power lines, are identified and controlled. Ensure that a safe work area is identified to avoid contact with overhead power lines, a power pole, or a cable.
2. SCOPE This procedure must be applied every time the staff or equipment or mobile work will move under or near overhead power lines. 3. DEFINITIONS Competent Well qualified and well trained and have enough experience to perform work as described in safety, without or with only aminimum level of supervision. The Designated Representative The person designated by the Supervisor or whoever is in charge of planning and directing Mobile devicesthe work. Vehicles or equipment powered by electricity, gasoline, diesel ornatural gas. Including trucks, forklifts, loaders, crawlers, etc.. 4. RESPONSIBILITIES Employees Ensure that they do not operate any equipment within 7 meters of overhead power lines, a power pole, or a cable, unless they are assigned to this taskby an appropriate representative an electricity company. Equipment operators a) Understand and follow the signals given by the designated signaller and qualified. b) Ensure that facilities are not in contact with the barriers and if there is contact, the work should be discontinued immediately and taken under the direction of a representative of an electricity company. c) The limit of 7 feet is not violated by piling soil or other materials on overhead power lines. d) Be aware of all the common hazards during all operations. e) If the equipment comes into contact with overhead power lines, they apply the emergency measures. f) has a copy of a work permit and permission to cross. Signalman a) Before work, he confirmed that all signals are agreed and understood by all involved. b) Establish communication with the equipment operator to ensure that the signals are received. c) Maintain a clear view of the surrounding environment at any time by giving the instructions. d) Is aware of the dangers when using existing equipment e) Is in possession of a copy of awork permitand permission to cross. The Designated Representative a) Ensure that the Work Permit for Crossing the Line overhead power established and reviewed at the preliminary meeting and Authorisation
Crossing is available on the site. b) Ensure that all overhead power lines around the work have been identified and the electricity company concerned is notified. c) Ensure that a preliminary meeting of work is required. d) Ensure that warning signs and appropriate barriers are in place. e) Ensure that all incidents involving overhead power lines are reported and investigated appropriately. f) Identify situations where permits and the guards are needed.
5. PROCEDURES 5.1 Identify the overhead power line During the planning phase, the designated representative shall: a) Review all plans and alignment sheets to identify all overhead power lines. NOTE: The designated representative must navigate to the project to confirm the existence and positions of power lines. b) Notify the power company concerned. NOTE: In an emergency, the notice is still required, but there is no requirement that it meets the time requirements of the electricity company c) Ensure that permission to cross to be available for construction projects. d) Establish the Work Permit for Crossing ofoverhead power lines and ensure that all operators of equipment and flaggers have a copy of the permit. e) Identify all hazards and method for minimizing. f) Appoint a flag for any work done at a distance of 7 meters of overhead power lines. 5.2 The Preliminary Meeting on overhead power lines Before work begins, the designated representative shall ensure that a meeting be held preliminary work to review the sites, dangers, work permits, authorizations crossing, the positioning of equipment and support plans . See the procedure for preliminary work meetings. NOTE: All flaggers and equipment operators must be in possession of a copy of a work permit and permission to cross. 5.3 Installation of barriers and warning signs The designated representative shall ensure that: a) warning signs be placed a minimum distance of 7 meters on each side of overhead power lines to within sight of all those who move in any direction in the lines. NOTE: The warning signs should be approximately 24 "x 24" (60 cm x 60 cm) and
must comply with design standards. b) protection bars connected with non-conductive cords are placed at a minimum distance of 7 meters of overhead power lines. NOTE: Signals and protection bars must be in place before work begins, and must remain in place until the work is completed or unless otherwise specified by the representative of an electricity company.
WORKPLACE HOUSEKEEPING Why should we pay attention to housekeeping at work? Effective housekeeping can eliminate some workplace hazards and help get a job done safely and properly. Poor housekeeping can frequently contribute to accidents by hiding hazards that cause injuries. If the sight of paper, debris, clutter and spills is accepted as normal, then other more serious health and safety hazards may be taken for granted. Housekeeping is not just cleanliness. It includes keeping work areas neat and orderly; maintaining halls and floors free of slip and trip hazards; and removing of waste materials (e.g., paper, cardboard) and other fire hazards from work areas. It also requires paying attention to important details such as the layout of the whole workplace, aisle marking, the adequacy of storage facilities, and maintenance. Good housekeeping is also a basic part of accident and fire prevention. Effective housekeeping is an ongoing operation: it is not a hit-and-miss cleanup done occasionally. Periodic "panic" cleanups are costly and ineffective in reducing accidents.
What is the purpose of workplace housekeeping? Poor housekeeping can be a cause of accidents, such as: • • • • •
tripping over loose objects on floors, stairs and platforms being hit by falling objects slipping on greasy, wet or dirty surfaces striking against projecting, poorly stacked items or misplaced material cutting, puncturing, or tearing the skin of hands or other parts of the body on projecting nails, wire or steel strapping
To avoid these hazards, a workplace must "maintain" order throughout a workday. Although this effort requires a great deal of management and planning, the benefits are many.
What are some benefits of good housekeeping practices? Effective housekeeping results in: • • • •
reduced handling to ease the flow of materials fewer tripping and slipping accidents in clutter-free and spill-free work areas decreased fire hazards lower worker exposures to hazardous substances
• • • • • • •
better control of tools and materials more efficient equipment cleanup and maintenance better hygienic conditions leading to improved health more effective use of space reduced property damage by improving preventive maintenance less janitorial work improved morale
How do I plan a good housekeeping program?
A good housekeeping and manages the orderly and movement materials from point ofprogram entry toplans exit. It includes a material flow storage plan to ensure minimal of handling. The plan also ensures that work areas are not used as storage areas by having workers move materials to and from work areas as needed. Part of the plan could include investing in extra bins and more frequent disposal. The costs of this investment could be offset by the elimination of repeated handling of the same material and more effective use of the workers' time. Often, ineffective or insufficient storage planning results in materials being handled and stored in hazardous ways. Knowing the plant layout and the movement of materials throughout the workplace can help plan work procedures. Worker training is an essential part of any good housekeeping program. Workers need to know how to work safely with the products they use. They also need to know how to protect other workers such as by posting signs (e.g., "Wet - Slippery Floor") and reporting any unusual conditions. Housekeeping order is "maintained" not "achieved." This means removing the inevitable messes that occur from time to time and not waiting until the end of the shift to reorganize and clean up. Integrating housekeeping into jobs can help ensure this is done. A good housekeeping program identifies and assigns responsibilities for the following: • • • • •
clean up during the shift day-to-day cleanup waste disposal removal of unused materials inspection to ensure cleanup is complete
Do not forget out-of-the-way places such as shelves, basements, sheds, and boiler rooms that would otherwise be overlooked. The orderly arrangement of operations, tools, equipment and supplies is an important part of a good housekeeping program. The final addition to any housekeeping program is inspection. It is the only way to check for deficiencies in the program so that changes can be made. The documents on workplace inspection checklists provide a general guide and examples of checklists for inspecting offices and manufacturing facilities.
What are the elements of an effective housekeeping program? Dust and Dirt Removal
In some jobs, enclosures and exhaust ventilation systems may fail to collect dust, dirt and chips adequately. Vacuum cleaners are suitable for removing light dust and dirt. Industrial models have special fittings for cleaning walls, ceilings, ledges, machinery, and other hard-toreach places where dust and dirt may accumulate. Dampening floors or using sweeping compounds beforesweeping reduces the amount of airborne dust. The dust and grime that collect in places like shelves, piping, conduits, light fixtures, reflectors, windows, cupboards and lockers mayrequire manual cleaning. Specialpurpose vacuums are useful for removing hazardous substances. For example, vacuum cleaners fitted with HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filters may be used to capture fine particles of asbestos or fibreglass. Compressed air should not be used for removing dust, dirt or chips from equipment or work surfaces. Employee Facilities
Employee facilities need to be adequate, clean and well maintained. Lockers are necessary for storing employees' personal belongings. Washroom facilities require clea ning once or more each shift. They also need to have a good supply of soap, towels plus disinfectants, if needed. If workers are using hazardous materials, employee facilities should provide special precautions such as showers, washing facilities and change rooms. Some facilities may require two locker rooms with showers between. Using suchdouble locker rooms allows workers to shower off workplace contaminants and prevents them from contaminating their "street clothes" by keeping their work clothes separated from the clothing that they wear home. Smoking, eating or drinking in the work area should be prohibited where toxic materials are handled. The eating area should be separate from the work area and should be cleaned properly each shift. Surfaces
Floors: Poor floor conditions are a leading cause of accidents so cleaning up spilled oil and other liquids at once is important. Allowing chips, shavings and dust to accumulate can also cause accidents. Trapping chips, shavings and dust before they reach the floor or cleaning them up regularly can prevent their accumulation. Areas that cannot be cleaned continuously, such as entrance ways, should have anti-slip flooring. Keeping floors in good order also means replacing any worn, ripped, or damaged flooring that poses a tripping hazard. Walls: Light-coloured walls reflect light while dirty or dark-coloured walls absorb light. Contrasting colours warn of physical hazards and mark obstructions such as pillars. Paint can highlight railings, guards and other safety equipment, but should never be used as a substitute for guarding. The program should outline the regulations and standards for colours. Maintain Light Fixtures
Aisles should be wide enough to accommodate people and vehicles comfortably and safely. Aisle space allows for the movement of people, products and materials. Warning signs and mirrors can improve sight-lines in blind corners. Arranging aisles properly encourages people to use them so that they do not take shortcuts through hazardous areas. Keeping aisles and stairways clear is important. They should not be used for temporary "overflow" or "bottleneck" storage. Stairways and aisles also require adequate lighting. Spill Control
The best way to control spills is to stop them before they happen. Regularly cleaning and maintaining machines and equipment is one way. Another is to use drip pans and guards where possible spills might occur. When spills do occur, it is important to clean them up immediately. Absorbent materials are useful for wiping up greasy, oily or other liquid spills. Used absorbents must be disposed of properly and safely. Tools and Equipment Tool housekeeping is very important, whether in the tool room, on the rack, in the yard, or on the bench. Tools require suitable fixtures with marked locations to provide orderly arrangement, both in the tool room and near the work bench. Returning them promptly after use reduces the chance of being misplaced or lost. Workers should regularly inspect, clean and repair all tools and take any damaged or worn tools out of service. Maintenance
The maintenance of buildings and equipment may be the most important element of good housekeeping. Maintenance involves keeping buildings, equipment and machinery in sa fe, efficient working order and in good repair. This includes maintaining sanitary facilities and regularly painting and cleaningwalls. Broken windows, damaged doors, defective plumbing and broken floor surfaces can make a workplace look neglected; these conditions can cause accidents and affect work practices. So it is important to replace or fix or damaged items as quickly as possible. A good maintenance program provides forbroken the inspection, maintenance, upkeep and repair of tools, equipment, machines and processes. Waste Disposal
The regular collection, grading and sorting of scrap contribute to good housekeeping practices. It also makes it possible to separate materials that can be recycled from those going to waste disposal facilities. Allowing material to build up on the floor wastes time and energy since additional time is required for cleaning it up. Placing scrap containers near where the waste is produced encourages orderly waste disposal and makes collection easier. All waste receptacles should be clearly labelled (e.g., recyclable glass, plastic, scrap metal, etc.). Storage
Good organization of stored materials is essential for overcoming material storage problems whetherof onhandling a temporary or permanent basis. There will also be fewer strain is injuries if the amount is reduced, especially if less manual materials handling required. The location of the stockpiles should not interfere with work but they should still be readily available when required. Stored materials should allow at least one metre (or about three feet) of clear space under sprinkler heads.
Stacking cartons and drums on a firm foundation and cross tying them, where necessary, reduces the chance of their movement. Stored materials should not obstruct aisles, stairs, exits, fire equipment, emergency eyewash fountains, emergency showers, or first aid stations. All storage areas should be clearly marked. Flammable, combustible, toxic and other hazardous materials should be stored in approved containers in designated areas that are appropriate for the different hazards that they pose. Storage of materials should meet all requirements specified in the fire codes and the regulations of environmental and occupational health and safety agencies in your jurisdiction.
What is an example of a Workplace Housekeeping Checklist? DO: •
• • • • • •
Minimize fire hazards by keeping workplace free of accumulated combustible materials and waste. Ensure that exits and aisles are clear of obstructions to allow easy evacuation of the building. Place all trash and scrap in proper containers. Keep oily rags in covered metal containers. Dispose of hazardous materials in approved marked containers. Store equipment and materials in their assigned location. Clean air vents and filters to maintain ventilation efficiency. Ensure that boxes, drums, and piles are located on a firm foundation and properly stacked. Clean up tools and unused materials after finishing a job or before leaving the job site. Clean up spills promptly according to procedures, usingpersonal protective equipment (PPE) where necessary. Report hazards such as uneven boards, cracks, burnt-out lights.
• • • •
Bundleempty hosescontainers and cablesand when not in Place pallets in use. designated locations. Dump small containers into larger ones. Keep only enough combustible materials at job site for job at hand.
DO NOT: • • • • • • • •
Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do
not pile material around fire extinguishers or sprinklers. not leave clean-up to last few minutes of shift or day. not clean equipment without "locking out." not reach into waste containers. Dump contents or remove bag. not blow off dust with compressed air. Use a vacuum or brush. not collect broken glass and metal straps in plastic bags. not use bare hands when collecting waste. Wear gloves to avoid cuts and splinters. not place materials on stairs.
Do not use kegs or boxes as chairs or ladders.
What is an example of a Housekeeping Inspection Checklist? Use the following checklist as a general workplace guide. Floors and Other Areas
• • • • • •
Are floors clean and clear of waste? Are signs posted to warn of wet floors? Are floors in good condition? Are there holes, worn or loose planks or carpet sticking up? Is anti-slip flooring used where spills, moisture or grease are likely? Are there protruding objects such as nails, sharp corners, open cabinet drawers, trailing electrical wires? Are personal items, such as clothing and lunch boxes, in assigned lockers or storage areas? Is the work area congested? Are floors well-drained?
Aisles and Stairways • • • • • •
Are aisles unobstructed and clearly marked? Are mirrors installed at blind corners? Are aisles wide enough to accommodate workers and equipment comfortably? Are safe loading practices used with hand and power trucks, skids, or pallets? Is the workplace lighting adequate? Are stairs well lit? Are stairs covered with an anti-slip tread? Are faulty stair treads repaired?
Spill Control • • • • •
Are all spills wiped up quickly? Are procedures followed as indicated on the material safety data sheet? Are spill absorbents used for greasy, oily, flammable or toxic materials? Are used rags and absorbents disposed of promptly and safely? Is a spill area surrounded by a barrier to prevent a spill from spreading?
Equipment and Machinery Maintenance • • • • • •
Is equipment damaged or outdated? Are tools and machinery inspected regularly for wear or leaks? Is equipment repaired promptly? Are drip pans or absorbent materials used if leaks cannot be stopped at the source? Is a machine that splashes oil fitted with a screen or splash guard? Are machines and tools cleaned regularly?
Waste Disposal • • • • •
Are Are Are Are Are
there adequate number of containers? there separate and approved containers for toxic and flammable waste? waste containers located where the waste is produced? waste containers emptied regularly? toxic and flammable waste chemicals handled properly?
Storage • •
Are storage areas safe and accessible? Is material stacked securely, blocked or interlocked if possible?
• • •
Are materials stored in areas that do not obstruct stairs, fire escapes, exits or firefighting equipment? Are materials stored in areas that do not interfere with workers or the flow of materials? Are bins or racks provided where material cannot be piled? Are all storage areas clearly marked? Do workers understand material storage and handling procedures?
Fire Prevention •
Are combustible and flammable materials present only in the quantities needed for the job hand? Are at combustible and flammable materials kept in safety cans during use? Are hazardous materials stored in approved containers and away from ignition sources? Are sprinkler heads clear of stored material? Are fire extinguishers inspected and located along commonly travelled routes, and close to possible ignition sources? Are oily or greasy rags placed in metal containers and disposed of regularly?
Workplace Housekeeping Checklist for Construction Sites What is an example of a workplace housekeeping checklist for construction sites? DO • • •
Gather up and remove debris to keep the work site orderly. Plan for the adequate disposal of scrap, waste and surplus materials. Keep the work area and all equipment tidy. Designate areas for waste materials and provide containers. Keep stairways, passageways and gangways free of material, supplies and obstructions. Secure loose or light material that is stored on roofs or on open floors. Remove or bend over nails protruding from lumber.
DO NOT •
Do not permit rubbish to fall freely from any level of the project. Use chutes or other approved devices to materials. Do not throw tools or other materials. Do not raise or lower any tool or equipment by its own cable or supply hose.
Flammable/Explosive Materials •
Store flammable or explosive materials such as gasoline, oil and cleaning agents apart from materials. Keep other flammable and explosive materials in proper containers with contents clearly marked. Store full barrels in an upright position. Keep gasoline and oil barrels on a barrel rack.
Store empty barrels separately. Post signs prohibiting smoking, open flames and other ignition sources in areas where flammable and explosive materials are stored. Store and chain all compressed gas cylinders in an upright position. Mark empty cylinders with the letters "mt," and store them separately from full or partially full cylinders. Ventilate all storage areas properly. Ensure that all electric fixtures and switches are explosion-proof where flammable materials are stored. Use grounding straps equipped with clamps on containers to prevent static electricity buildup.
Workplace Housekeeping Checklist for Stockpiling What is an example of a workplace housekeeping checklist for stockpiling? Lumber • •
Lay lumber before stacking on a solid level sill. Use cross-piling or cross-stripping whenever the pile exceeds 1.2meters (4 ft.) in height. Exercise care when cutting bands used to bundle lumber. Avoid being trapped by falling materials.
Reinforcing steel • • •
Use wooden spacers to separate piles of reinforcing steel. Unload reinforcing steel by mechanical means whenever possible. Check all bundles for broken or weak tie wires before attempting to unload.
Pipe • •
Stack pipe on solid, level sills only. Block pipes to prevent them from rolling. Place lagging between layers to reduce the pressure and prevent the pile from spreading. Remove pipe from ends of the pile. Do not stack pipe higher than 1.5 meters (5 ft.).
Structural steel • • •
Pile structural steel to prevent tipping and slipping. Give special attention when loading structural steel from trucks. Place slings on steel before releasing binder chains.
Bagged and stacked material • •
Maintain stability. Do not allow piles to exceed ten bags in height unless the face of the piles are supported by the walls of a storage bin or enclosure.
Cross-pile bagged materials on skids and pile only to a convenient height. The height depends on the nature and ability of the mechanical aids used and the weight of the bagged materials.
Bricks, Blocks, Tiles
Pile bricks, blocks or tiles on a solid, level surface only. Use extreme caution when removing metal bands. Do not stockpile material on a scaffold beyond the safe loading capacity.
Is there any truth to the concept ?
Can it be achieved ?
What is a safety culture? Why is it important ?
What is all the talk about ZERO Incidents ? • • • •
Is there any truth to the concept ? Can it be achieved ? What is a safety culture? Why is it important ?
ZERO INCIDENTSDEFINED Loss producing events that results: In an injury. Property damage/loss. Lost workday. Restricted workday. OBJECTIVE FOR ZERO Provide management with resources, funding, and training. Identify and implement policies andprocedures. Eliminate incidents by providing guidelines and techniques for observing and correcting unsafe acts and conditions. • • • • •
• • •
OVERVIEW A mind set An attitude. • •
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Safety controls must be designed into every aspect of an organization. Must be a company vision - a value. Safety goals must be. Communicated. Realistic. Reflect the “safety culture” of the organization. Safety must be a # 1 priority. Integral part of business. Safety is everyone’s responsibility.
CULTURE-BASED APPROACH • • • • • • • • •
A world class safety program. A management system. A set of assumptions, benefits, and beliefs about reality. The way we make decisions, feel, think, and act. An attitude developed over time Based upon learning Personal experiences Beliefs Upbringing
WHAT IS CULTURE CHANGE? Culture change is evolution and revolution. Changing a basic perception of reality. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR SAFETY? • •
Paradigm Shift. Old Way. Improving Safety Performance by Focusing onoperator error. New Way. Improving Safety Performance by Focusing on the cultural and management system that influence safety behavior. Using the position of leadership to empower employees at all levels to take responsibility for safety. BASIC SAFETY PHILOSOPHY Every incident can be avoided. No job is worth getting hurt for. Every job will be done safely. Incidents can be managed. Most importantly safety is everyone’s responsibility. Safety/Best Management Practices. Line management function. Safety standards. Define various safe procedures and management practices. Training. Everyone understands and meets requirements. • • • •
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Audits - Conformance Appraisals. Evaluates implementation of the programs. Investigations. Used detect to problems in the implementation of responsibilities, standards, training, and auditing. Involvement. Builds ownership. BENEFITS Safety standards are communicated to all employees. Responsibilities for implementing standards are understood and • • • •
accepted. Records document how standards/BMP are met. Internal management control. Cost avoidance. Improved quality. Better productivity. Team building. Unsafe behavior stands out. Unsafe behavior is unacceptable. Safe work is influenced through peer pressure. Consistent planning and task execution. HOW CAN WE CHANGE CULTURE? Grassroots up - Empower the Team. Top-Down Leadership Actions with Support Systems. KEY SAFETY PRINCIPLES • • • • • • • • • •
Working safety is conditiontoofgive employment. Each employee is aexpected consideration to the prevention of injury to self and to coworkers. Involvement and thinking of all people in the safety process is valued and expected. Continual improvement is the goal. Individual and teams must be recognized for their adherence to and advancement of safety. CONCERNS A “quick fix” to stop incidents? Implementing new goals not projecting zero incidents. Driving injury reporting underground. NORMS Part of the safety program. The things that we do every day without thinking - become the accepted way we do our business. •
• • •
Understand why unsafe norms exist. Plan system changes to reinforce new norms, communicate the way you want the program to work. Define the unstated norms (unwritten rules) behind those actions.
ACCOUNTABILITY An action taken to develop self-control, character, orderliness, and efficiency. Exercise strict control to enforce a system of rules/procedures. Goal is to invoke desired change. Intervention. Positive Reinforcement. Action. •