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LITERATURE AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS: Definition. Literature is said to be a product of and a commentary on the life process, literature being life itself. It is an oral or written record of man’s thoughts, feelings and aspirations which has stood the test of time because of its universal appeal. Two Broad Categories Utilitarian
“Literature of Knowledge”
“Literature of Power”
chief aim is to supply information appeals to the mind/intellect
- to arouse human interest - appeals to feelings/emotions
factual objective impartial uses direct language language
1. 2. 3. 4.
Examples: news articles, memos, Encyclopedia, dictionary, textbooks, etc.
Examples: short story, novels, poems, myths, etc.
fanciful subjective partial, at times uses indirect/figurative
Two Literary Forms Prose – all forms of written or spoken expression that are consciously organized and that lack rhythmic patterns; it implies logical order, continuity of thought and individual style. Poetry – an arrangement of lines in which form and content fuse to suggest meanings beyond the literal meanings of the words; the language of poetry is more compressed and also more musical. Poetry has rhyme, meter and rhythm. Rhyme. Words rhyme when the sound of their accented vowels and all succeeding sounds are identical Rhythm. It refers to the cadence of poetic lines or prose passage Meter. The repetition of a regular rhythmic unit in a line of poetry (iamb, trochee, anapest, dactyl) Standards/Merits: Artistry/Style – has to do with beauty & forcefulness in the weaving of words, with how all elements are combined to form a creative whole. Intellectual value – the capacity to stimulate or stir the mind, to make others think Permanence – the timelessness & the timeliness; its relevance today as when it was written. Suggestiveness – the capacity to uplift the emotions; to soothe the cares of man. Spiritual value – the capacity to inspire lofty thoughts, especially about the divine/godly/spiritual Universality –the truth and meaning that transcend time & space, religion, age and creed THE LITERARY GENRES POETRY A. Narrative – tells a story in verse form Epic- the longest form of narrative poetry; tells about the exploits/adventures and heroic deeds of a hero or a semilegendary being; it is set in the distance past. There are two types: literary epic – has a known author; written by a single author folk epic/epic of growth – originates from a group of people
Metrical Romance – a long rambling story which embodies the ideals of the medieval times (age of chivalry); talks about the lives and adventures of the nobility, of chivalry and knighthood Ex. King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table (Thomas Malory). Metrical Tale – a long narrative poem which tells of the lives of ordinary people; has element of realism. Ex. Decameron (Giovanni Boccaccio), The Canterbury Tales (Geoffrey Chaucer). Ballad – a narrative about (1) a heroic deed, (2) love episode/romantic encounter or (3) a supernatural element, but simpler than the epic, metrical romance and metrical tale. Ex. Sir Patric k Spens, Lochinvar, Lord Randal. B. Dramatic Poetry – a stage presentation or production in verse form Tragedy – has a sad ending; main character often meets death; has a somber or serious tone. Examples: Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare), Oedipus the King (Sophocles) Comedy – light and sprightly in tone; always has a happy ending. Examples: The Merchant of Venice (Shakespeare). The Frogs (Aristophanes) C. Lyric Poetry – reflects varied moods and emotions of the author Ode – a monodrama where the author is the actor himself who shares an unforgettable experience of his life. Ex. Annabel Lee (Edgar Allan Poe), Ode to the West Wind (Percy Bysshe Shelley). Elegy – a poem about death or mourning expressed in lamentation. Ex. O Captain my captain (Walt Whitman), Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard (Thomas Gray) Sonnet – a poem of fourteen rhymed lines in iambic pentameter Ex. Sonnet 18 (Shakespeare), How do I Love Thee (Elizabeth Barret Browning) Song/Psalm/hymn – song is a poem intended to be sung; psalm is a religious song; hymn a song of praise/adoration either sacred or secular. Modern ballad – based on a narrative which serves as the poet’s inspiration; there is a story behind. Idyll – a poem of rural or pastoral feeling; expresses sentiment for his immediate surroundings. Ex. Trees (Joyce Kilmer) PROSE Short story – a narrative told by a known author with characters, setting, plot and theme. Novel – an extended form of a short story; with several settings and more characters, minor and major themes, main plot and subplots. Myth – prose narratives which are considered to be sacred and true in societies where they are told; embodiment of dogma or religious doctrines; set in the remote past (when the world was young and not as it is today) Legends – prose narratives considered to be true in societies where they originated and thrived; situated in the distant past (when the world was young but much as it is today) Folktales – definitely fiction; not an embodiment of dogma; told for entertainment. Parables – stories containing morals or religious lessons; allegories (an extended metaphor). Fables – characters are animals; expressed the follies of man without directly attacking them. Essay – a literary exposition expressing the author’s views or ideas about a subject; maybe formal or informal THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION Setting – the time, place, atmosphere Characters – the actors in the literary piece; (1) highly developed/well-rounded, (2) flat/character types Hero - epitome of perfection Villain – epitome of evil Protagonist – the lead character; an ordinary person Antagonist – opposes the lead character
Anti-hero – a hero and a villain in one Plot – organic or episodic Point of View –1st person, 2nd person, 3rd person, omniscient, multiple Conflict – internal/psychological (man vs. himself); social (man vs. man, man vs. society, society vs. man), man vs. nature Theme Language TRENDS AND MOVEMENTS Trend – a temporary literary fashion often spearheaded by a philosophical foundation which is considered to be absolute by its forerunners and followers. Movement - though quite similar to a trend, develops in a larger scale and for a longer period than a trend; it is of greater magnitude than the trend because it practically affects all the other branches in the field of humanities. Movements Romanticism (16th century) First movement in literary history first proliferated England and Spain the age of individualism and self-expression (renaissance) a period of optimism, freedom, uniqueness as a person came about because of accomplishment of a major scale there was unrestrained enjoyment so the maxim was: “let us drink the cup of life to the lees focuses on a setting that is far, distant, magical, mystical, imaginative and exotic, past or present but transports the reader into an unfamiliar place characters are of heroic proportions, often larger than life; hero usually comes from the nobility or the ruling class; has supernatural elements; villains are the exact opposite of the hero plot focuses on adventure; displays cosmic struggle between good and evil; there is also the struggle of an individual against the society, its norms and its laws, but the individual triumphs because the story has to have a happy ending (if a tragedy, he dies only after accomplishing his purpose) theme embodies poetic justice language is usually verbose, flowery, replete with figurative language Neoclassicism a reaction against romanticism age of reason setting is in contemporary Paris during the 17th century; current, new and familiar characters are never highly individualized/flat or types plot did not patronize adventures; revolved around a social problem; there is also the cosmic struggle between good and evil’ the society. Its norms and its laws triumphs over the erring individual theme is on poetic justice language is refined and polished; prefers the expression of truth in a most refined and pleasant manner Trends Romanticism (late 18th century – early 19th) A revolt against science, authority, materialism and discipline and an affirmation of individuality and imagination Romantic writers abandoned the witty and measured couplet and concerned themselves with the primitive, the bizarre, the irregular and the unique Realism Pervading sentiment: “Life goes on. Man may not be perfect but definitely has redeeming qualities to compensate for his misfortune.” Setting is now, current, familiar Characters are real people Plot focuses on the individual
May or may not carry a moral Language is ordinary, everyday speech Naturalism Extreme realism; brought about by advancement in Science There is heavy pessimism, cynicism Does not bring man much hope; shows ugliness of life Man is pictured as a weakling who cannot rise above the forces of fate, heredity and environment Man s a loser because he is doomed from the start Symbolism Shortest-lived trend because it didn’t have much in terms of tenets; writers used personalized symbols A reaction against naturalism Imagism Does not necessarily carry a thought/theme, but focuses on hard, vivid images Lack of theme did not allow it to stand the test of time dadaism irrational, devoid of logic; nihilistic, pessimistic and disruptive featured brutality in comic form Surrealism grotesque distortion of reality no sense, no order; can explore the subconscious Impressionism Purpose is to know how external qualities affect the person internally Expressionism Purpose is to know how internal qualities affect his perception of the reality Existentialism It says: man is born into a hostile and purposeless universe and that he must oppress the cruelty of his environment through the exercise of his freewill. His choice determines his act and his act determines his essence. Absurdism Strives to express the senselessness of the human condition and the inadequacy of the rational approach by open abandonment of rational devices and discursive thoughts. Experimental theatre Combined everything! Anything and everything goes. SIGNIFICANT LITERARY PERIODS 1.Ancient Times – 5th century BC Golden Age of Greece Notable Literary Figures Homer (Epic – “Iliad”) Sappho and Pindar (Lyric) Aesop (Fables) Demosthenes (Oratory) Aeschylus (“The Oresteian Trilogy”), Sophocles (“Antigone”) , Euripides (“Medea”) - tragedy Aristophanes ( “The Frogs,” comedy) Plato(“The Republic”), Aristotle (“The Poetics”) (Literary criticism) 2.Roman Conquest – 200BC to 450 AD Notable Literary Figures Virgil (“Aeneid” - Epic) Ovid (“Metamorphosis” - Lyric)
Horace, Cicero (Literary Criticism) Seneca (Tragedy) Plautus and Terence (comedy) 3. Dark Ages to the Medieval Times Early middle – epic poetry (“Beowulf”) Middle middle – ballad (Tales of Robinhood), metrical romance (King Arthur), mystery plays, miracle plays, morality plays, interludes Late middle – literary epic (“Divine Comedy” by Dante), Metrical Tales (“The Decameron” , “The Canterbury Tales”) 4.
16th Century Renaissance (Age of Romanticism) Spain Epic (“El Cid”) Drama (Lope de Vega) Novel ( “Don Quixote” by Miguel de Cervantes)
England Sonnets, Drama (“A Midsummer Night’s Dream” by Shakespeare) Dramatic Monologue (“Dr. Faustus” by C. Marlowe) Lyric Poetry (“Heart Exchange” by Philip Sidney,”The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd” by William Raleigh, “Song to Celia” by Ben Johnson,etc) 5. Late 16th Century to early 17th Rise of the baroque literature, a trend which was an excess of romanticism; very unnatural/exaggerated; emphasis was on form 17th Century In England, the rise of Puritanism (Ex. “Paradise Lost” by John Milton In Spain, the Age of Reason – revival of the arts of the Greeks and the Romans (Ex. Tartuffe by Moliere) 18th century, period of neo-classicism in Europe France (Jean Jacques Rosseau, Voltaire) England (Alexander Pope, John Dryden, Daniel Defoe, Joseph Addison 18th century, transition from neoclacissism to Romanticism England, Thomas Gray (“Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”), William Wordsworth (“I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud ”), Robert Burns (“A Red, Red Rose”), Percy Bysshe Shelley (“Ode to the West Wind”), John Keats (“Ode on a Grecian Urn”), Samuel Taylor Coleridge (“Kublah Khan”), Mary Shelley (“Frankenstein”), Lord Byron (“She Walks in Beauty”)
Naturalism – Ernest Hemingway (“For Whom the Bell Tolls”), Flaubert (“Madame Bovary”), Guy de Mauppasant (“A Piece of String” Imagism – Ezra Pound, Ammy Lowel Symbolism – Rimbaud 20th century – rise of the anti-art crazes Notable Figures: James Joyce, T.S. Eliot, William Butler Yeats IMPORTANT LITERARY TERMS Alliteration. The repetition of initial consonant sounds as in “sweet spring” Allusion. Reference to a historical or literary person, place or event with which the reader is assumed to be familiar. Analogy. A point by point comparison between two dissimilar things. Aphorism. A brief statement that expresses a general truth about life. Autobiography. A story of a person’s life written by that person. Comic relief. A humorous scene, incident or speech included in a serious drama to provide respite from emotional intensity. Connotation. The emotional response evoked by a word. Consonance. The repetition of consonant sounds within and at the ends of words, as in down and mine. Couplet. Two consecutive lines of poetry that end with rhyming words. Drama. Literature that develops plot and characters through dialogues and actions; literature in play form. Dramatic monologue. A lyric poem in which the speaker addresses a silent listener in a moment of deep emotion. Epigram. A short poem notable for its conciseness, balance, wit and clarity. Epistle. A formal literary letter addressed to a specific person but intended for a wide audience. Fiction. Imaginative works of prose, including the novel and the short story. Foil. A character who provides a striking contrast to another character. Foreshadowing. A writer’s use of hints or clues to indicate events that will occur later in a narrative. Free verse. Poetry written without regular patterns of rhyme and meter. Rhyme scheme. Pattern of end rhyme in a poem. Romance. Any imaginative narrative concerned with noble heroes, gallant love, chivalry or daring deeds. Satire. A combination of critical attitude with wit and humor for the purpose of improving society. Soliloquy. A speech given by a character while she is alone. Speaker. The voice that talks to the readers. Stream of consciousness. The technique of presenting the flow of thoughts, responses and sensations of one or more character. Symbol. A person, place or object that represents something beyond itself. Surprise ending. An unexpected twist at the conclusion of the story. Tone. The attitude that a writer takes toward his subject matter. Understatement. Creating emphasis by saying less than is actually or literally true, ex. not bad to mean pretty good.
France, Victor Hugo (“Les Miserables”, “Phantom of the Opera,” “The Hunchback of Notre Dame”) GREEK AND ROMAN GODS AND GODDESSES America, Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne (“The Scarlet Letter”), Edgar Allan Poe (“The Cask of Amontillado”), Ralph Waldo Emerson (“Self-Reliance”), William Cullen Bryant (“Thanatopsis”) 19th Century Victorian Period (England) – advent of Labor and capitalism Realism – Henrick Ibsen, John Steinbeck
ZEUS (JUPITER)- the supreme ruler; the Lord of the sky, the rain-god and the cloud-gatherer; his breastplate was the aegis; his bird was the eagle; the oak was his tree; his oracle was Dodona, the land of oak trees. HERA (JUNO) – Zeus’s wife and sister; she was the protector of marriage; the cow and the peacock were sacred to her; Argos was her city. POSEIDON (NEPTUNE) – the ruler of the sea; Zeus’s brother and second to him in eminence; he was commonly called ‘the earth-shaker” and was always shown carrying his trident, a three-pronged spear.
HADES (PLUTO) – the third brother among the Olympians, who drew for his share the underworld and the rule over the dead. He was god of wealth, of the precious metals hidden in the earth. PALLA ATHENA (MINERVA) – the daughter of Zeus and his favorite child; she was battle goddess; she was also the embodiment of wisdom, reason and purity. Argos was her favorite city; the olive was her tree and the owl her bird. PHOEBUS APOLLO- “the most Greek of all the gods;” the master musician; the God of Light and Truth; the sun-god; the laurel was his tree. ARTEMIS (DIANA)- Apollo’s twin sister; one of the three maiden goddesses of Olympus (Aphrodite, Athena & Artemis); the Lady of the wild things; As Apollo was the sun, she was the moon. APHRODITE (VENUS) – the goddess of love and beauty; the laughter-loving goddess; the myrtle was her tree; the dove her bird, sometimes the sparrow and the swan. She is the wife of Hephaestus (Vulcan), the lame and ugly god of the forge. HERMES (MERCURY) –he was Zeus’s messenger; also the solemn guide of the dead. ARES (MARS) – THE God of War0; son of Zeus and Hera; his bird was the vulture. HEPHAESTUS 9VULCAN AND MULCIBER) – the God of fire, the son of Hera; he was protector of the smiths. HESTIA (VESTA)-the goddess of the hearth, the symbol of the home. NOTABLE WORKS BY FILIPINO AUTHORS “A Child of Sorrow,” first novel in English by Zoilo M. Galang, 1929. “Life and Success,” first volume of essays in English, Zoilo M. Galang “Box of Ashes and Other Stories,” first collection of short stories in book form, ZM Galang, 1925 “Sursum Cordia,” by Justo Juliano, first known Filipino poem in English “The Distance to Andromeda and Other Stories”, by Gregorio Brilliantes, 1960 , portrayed individual anxieties “The Butcher, The Baker, The Candlestick maker,” by Gilda Cordero Fernando, 1962, centered on the individual “The Day the Dancers Came,” by Bienvenido Santos, 1907, vividly portrayed a man’s search for national identity “The Bamboo Dancers”, by NVM Gonzales 1959, first winner of Republic Cultural Heritage Award for Literature “Literature and Society” by Salvador P. Lopez; as a writer, he emphasized literature from the masses, for the masses “Footnote to Youth” by Jose Garcia Villa; he stressed art for art’s sake “Three Generations” by Nick Joaquin “Like the Molave”, a poem by Rafael Zulueta Da Costa, describe the qualities of the Filipino people “How my Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife,” by Manuel Arguilla “The Life of Cardo” by Amador T. Daguio; a short story “The Small Key” by Paz M. Latorena
12. The Song of Roland 13. Paradise lost and Paradise Regained 14. Le Morte D’Arthur 15. Idyll’s of the King 16. Faerie Queene 17. Canterbury Tales 18.The Rime of the Ancient Mariner 19. Lochinvar 20. Ode to the West Wind 21.Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard 22. Macbeth 23. Romeo and Juliet 24. Othello 25. Hamlet 26. A Midsummer Night’s Dream 27. The Taming of the Shrew 28. As You Like It 29. The Les Miserables 30. The Hunchback of Notre Dame 31. Rip Van Winkle 32. The Legend of the Sleepy Hollow 33. The Scarlet Letter 34. Rappaccini’s Daughter 35. Thanatopsis
(France) John Milton
Folk Epic Literary Epic
Thomas Malory Alfred Tennyson Edmund Spencer Geofrey Chaucer
Metrical Romance Metrical Romance Metrical Romance Metrical Tale
Samuel Coleridge Metrical Tale Sir Walter Scott Literary Ballad Percey Bysshe Shelley Ode Thomas Gray Elegy Shakespeare Shakespeare Shakespeare Shakespeare Shakespeare
Tragedy Tragedy Tragedy Tragedy Comedy
Shakespeare Shakespeare Victor Hugo Victor hugo
Comedy Comedy Novel Novel
Washington Irving Short Story Washington Irving Short Story Nathaniel Hawthorne Novel Nathaniel Hawthorne Short Story William Cullen Bryant Poem
Relate an actual classroom assessment strategy in the teaching of language and/or literature; identify its purpose/s; discuss the steps and its benefits. MORE, evaluate its validity, reliability and practicability. EXAMPLE Evaluating with Journal Questions Hildie Brooks, seventh and eight grade teacher, Manhattan, Kansas
IMPORTANT WORKS OF IMPORTANT WRITERS Works
1. Iliad 2. Odyssey 3. The Oresteian Trilogy 4. Oedipus the King 5. Antigone 6. Medea 7. The Republic 8. The Poetics 9. Aeneid 10. Beowulf 11. El Cid
Folk Epic Folk Epic Drama Drama Drama Drama Criticism Criticism Literary Epic Folk Epic Folk Epic
For the past several years, I have been testing my students with a strategy I call “journal questions.” On Monday of each week, I write a journal question on the board and the students must write a minimum of three paragraphs in response to the question of the week. The questions are based on the concepts developed during the previous week. The students must identify, explain and support their own ideas. The emphasis is not on the correct answer but, but on the ability of the student to express his or her own ideas. For example in the seventh grade class, the journal question dealt with why do people start to use mind-altering drugs and whether there are any good reasons to start to use drugs. There are numerous benefits to this type of evaluation. The students learn to think for themselves instead of spitting back memorized facts and figures. The students must support their opinions without fear of being put down for their opinions. One of the most enjoyable aspect is being able to get to know the students in a more intimate way through the writing of their own ideas Validity, Reliability, Practicability….