READING PART B Instructions TIME LIMIT: 45 MINUTES
There are TWO reading texts in Part B. After each of the texts you will find a number of questions or unfinished statements about the text, each with four suggested answers or ways of finishing. You must choose the ONE which you think fits best. For each question, 1-20, indicate on your answer sheet the letter A, B, C or D against the number of the question. Answer ALL questions. Marks are NOT deducted for incorrect answers. NOTE: You must complete your Answer Sheet for Part B within the 45 minutes allowed for this part of the sub-test.
NOW TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE FOR TEXTS AND QUESTIONS
Going blind in Australia 1. The main idea of the first paragraph (lines 1-5) is that a) 85% of Australians over 50 years old are legally blind. b) There are many reasons for visual impairment in Australia. c) The elderly in Australia need better eye care d) The elderly in Australia receive sufficient eye care. 2. In paragraph 2 (lines 6-12) the author suggest that a) Many people have poor eyesight at retirement age. b) Sight problems of the aged are often preventable or treatable. c) Cataract and glaucoma are age-related and often untreatable. d) Few sight problems of the elderly are potentially damaging. 3. According to the article, cataracts a) May affect about half the population of Australia over age 64. b) May occur in about 4-5% of Australians over age 64. c) Are directly related to smoking and alcohol consumption in old age. d) Are the cause of more than 50% of visual impairments. 4. According to the article, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) a) Responds well to early treatment. b) Affects 1 in 5 of people aged 65-74. c) Is a new disease which originated in the USA. d) Causes a significant amount of sight loss in the elderly. 5. According to the article, the detection of glaucoma a) Generally occurs too late for treatment to be effective. b) Is strongly associated with ethnic and genetic factors. c) Must occur early to enable effective treatment. d) Generally occurs before optic nerve damage is very advanced. 6. Statistics in the article indicate that a) Existing eye care services are not fully utilised by the elderly. b) GP's are generally aware of their patients' sight difficulties. c) Most of the elderly in the USA receive adequate eye treatment. d) Only 40% of the visually impaired visit an ophthalmologist.
7 According to the article, which of the following statements is NOT true? a) Many elderly people believe that eyesight problems cannot be treated effectively. b) Elderly people with chronic diseases are more likely to have poor eyesight. c) The facilities for eye treatments are not always readily available. d) Many elderly people think that deterioration of eyesight is a product of ageing. 8. In discussing social factors affecting the use of health services, the author points out that a) Wealthier people use health services more often than poorer people. b) Poorer people use health services more regularly than wealthier people. c) Poorer people deliberately avoid having their eye sight examined. d) Poorer people have less access to the range of available eye care services. 9. In Australia, in the year 2031 a) About one tenth of the country's population will be elderly. b) About one third of the country's population will be elderly. c) The proportion of people over 65 will be twice the present proportion. d) The number of visually impaired will be twice the present number. 10 The author believes that general practitioners a) Should be more active in investigating patients' possible sight difficulties. b) Should not be required to deal with sight deterioration. c) Should not refer patients to specialists until the problems are advanced. d) Should seek assistance from eye specialists in detection of problems. 11. The author suggests that a) Increased government funding will solve the country's eye care problems. b) Government services should include prevention and health promotion. c) General practitioners should reduce the cost of treating sight problems in the elderly. d) General practitioners should take full responsibility for treating sight problems.
12. The first paragraph (lines 1-5) informs the reader that. a) A protein treatment has caused mice to lose weight dramatically. b) A protein treatment for mice cannot be adapted for use in humans. c) Scientists agree that a new protein treatment will make people lose weight. d) A scientific method of making obese people slim has been developed. 13. The reader can infer from the second paragraph (lines 6-8) that a) The public is sceptical about the possibility of developing a scientific slimming method. b) The Californian company, Amgen, is eager to share its new-found technical knowledge. c) Several companies will be able to develop products based on the results of the research. d) Many people are confident that a product which guarantees weight loss will sell very well. 14. Friedman and his colleagues found that a genetic defect in the gene called ob a) Causes obesity in mice. b) Causes obesity in humans and mice. c) Has the same structure in mice and humans. d) Produces a protein called leptin. 15. According to Friedman and his colleagues, the ob protein a) May be transferred from mice to humans. b) May be a factor in appetite control. c) Is produced by the ob hormone. d) Is mainly found in obese mice. 16. According to the article, the Californian company called Amgen a) Was paid $20 million by the Howard Hughes Institute. b) Intends to use humans to test new products based on the ob protein. c) Has begun to trial new products based on the ob protein. d) Is one of several companies trialling products based on the ob protein.
17. A study by Mary Ann Pelleymounter and her colleagues found that a) The ob protein caused subjects in the study to decrease their metabolic rate. b) The ob protein caused people to lose about twenty percent of their weight. c) A deficiency in the ob protein had caused obesity in the subjects. d) A defective ob gene resulted in the production of the ob protein. 18. According to the Friedman and Pelleymounter studies, treatment with ob protein a) May be useful only for people with a defective ob gene. b) May be useful for anyone who wants to lose weight. c) Is effective only on mice with a defective ob gene. d) Will not be effective on people who want to lose weight. 19. The evidence gathered in Friedman’s and Pelleymounter’s studies a) Demonstrates conclusively that the ob protein controls appetite. b) Proves that the ob protein causes animals to lose 40 percent of their weight. c) Suggests that the ob protein is a factor in determining appetite. d) Suggests that the normal amount of fat is 0.67 percent of bodyweight. 20. The researchers from Hoffman-La Roche are less confident of the protein’s importance because a) It has not been trialled on humans. b) The trials on mice were inconclusive. c) It does not have a significant role in weight loss. d) It is not the only factor involved in appetite control. 21. In conclusion, the article suggests that a) A treatment for obesity in humans will be developed from the ob protein. b) Scientists will soon have more knowledge about the ob receptor in the brain. c) The results of the study of mice will lead to weight loss pills for humans. d) Despite the results of the study of mice, the benefit for humans is unknown.
ANSWER KEY 1) C 2) B 3) B 4) D 5) C 6) A 7) B 8) D 9) C 10) A 11) B 12) A 13) D 14) A 15) B 16) B 17) C 18) B 19) C 20) D 21) D