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LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS (LET) Refresher Course 2010
WHAT TO EXPECT AREA: Music, Arts, and Physical Education, Competencies:
1. Demonstr Demonstrate ate unders understand tanding ing of concep concepts ts and skills skills on: on: a. Music b. Arts c. Phys Physic ical al Educ Educat atio ion n
Prepared by: Prof. Minerva Atanacio
PHYSICAL EDUCATION This section reviews basic Physical Education concepts. Movement concepts an !o"ms Fundamental movements and movement concepts includin! nonlocomotor and manipulative movements movements and concepts of space time effort and "uality in the conte#t of movement education. Fitness includin! s$ill% and health%related fitness and conditionin! &ovement forms includin! !ames in the conte#t of individual dual and team !ames'sports as well as tumblin! !ymnastics and rhythmic and dance activities. •
P#$s%ca& an '%o&o%ca& Sc%ence Fonat%ons (rowth and development motor learnin! $inesiolo!y and e#ercise physiolo!y •
Soc%a& Sc%ence Fonat%ons )ocial and psycholo!ical aspects of physical education •
MO+EMENT CO CONCEPTS AN AND FO FORMS A* 'as%c s,%&&ss,%&&s- s,%&&s s,%&&s %nvo&ve %nvo&ve %n movement movement act%on an moto" moto" patte"ns* patte"ns* 1. Loco Locomo moto torr skil skills ls.. a. )$ills )$ills used to to move move the body body from one location location to another another.. b. )$ills )$ills include include *umpin! *umpin! hoppin! hoppin! s$ippin! s$ippin! leapin! leapin! slidin! slidin! !allopin !allopin! ! wal$in! etc. 2. Nonl Nonloc ocom omot otor or skil skills ls.. a. )$ills )$ills in which which the individua individuall does not have have to chan!e chan!e location location in order order to practice an activity. b. )$ills )$ills include include stretchin! stretchin! pushin! pushin! pullin! pullin! twistin! twistin! circlin! circlin! and and most calisthenics activities +movements toward toward and away from the center of the body raisin! and lowerin! body parts,. 3. Ma Mani nipu pula lativ tive e Skill Skills. s. a. )$ills )$ills used to handle handle or manipu manipulate late play play ob*ects ob*ects such as as bats balls balls wands hoops. b. )$ills )$ills include include movements movements that that increase increase hand%eye hand%eye and hand%f hand%foot oot coordination trac$in! trac$in! s$ills and de#terity and propulsion s$ills +such as throwin! $ic$in! and battin!,. -. Specialized Skills. Skills. a. )$ills )$ills related related to specif specific ic sports sports !ames !ames and and appara apparatus. tus. b. )$ills )$ills are structured structured +specif +specific ic rules !uidelin !uidelines es and techni"ues techni"ues,, rather than than structured. '* 'as%c movements- s,%&&s "e&ate to t#e poss%.%&%t%es poss%.%&%t%es o! t#e t#e .o$ an t#e a.%&%t$ to e/p"ess0 e/p&o"e0 an %nte"p"et t#e p#$s%ca& env%"onment* 1. Progra Program m applic applicati ations ons..
a. )tructure the learnin! environment5 provide a variety of movement e#pressions5 individuali6e the activities5 build confidence in e fficiently movin! one7s body. b. Provide both !ross%motor +bi!%muscle, activities and fine%motor +manipulative, movement possibilities. c. evelop awareness for a variety of concepts includin! space time force and "ualities of movement and flow. Basic movement processes. a. Traits considered as a whole +not isolated actions, b. evelopment of body mechanics. +1, 8road movement competencies. +2, Freedom to e#plore the physical environment. +a, )patial factors include both !eneral and personal space in performin! locomotor activities. +b, &ovements include direction patterns and si6e and an!le of movement +such as hori6ontal vertical dia!onal and circular,. Movement considerations. a. 9ariation in speed acceleration deceleration rhythm etc. b. :uality of movement +1, Force and effort; hat body mechanics improve force= +2, Flow; direction of movement. +a, )ustained movement +free flow5 continuity of movement,. +b, /nterrupted movement and interval activities. +4, 8ody factors; the body and its parts in relation to specific movement activities. +a, ?nilateral; one%sided activities +b, 8ilateral; two%sided activities +c, Cross%lateral; each side wor$in! independently. +d, 8ody 6ones; anterior posterior etc. Classi!ing movement patterns a. ?nstructured movement; movement e#ploration that involves choices related to response e#perimentation e#ploration and balance. +1, &ovements patterns and se"uences can involve $nowled!e of special s$ills but do not re"uire them. +2, E#plorin! !eneral space movin! in any direction5 free e#pression. b. )tructured movement; involves a specific s$ill that can be "uantified. c. Combinations of movement patterns +includes both structured and unstructured movement,; stretch li$e a rubber band recoil *ump and hop s"uat twist !allop. Perceptual%motor competencies; used to dia!nose perceptual%motor deficiencies. a. "eneral coordination; ability to move in rhythm and with muscular control. b. Balance# control of the center of !ravity and laterality +sideward movement,. +1, )tatic balance. +2, ynamic balance. +4, Rotational balance c. Bod! image; $nowled!e of body parts and body in space. +1,
C* P"%nc%p&es o! &ea"n%n assoc%ate 1%t# movement ecat%on- to eve&op e!!%c%ent an e!!ect%ve movement s,%&&s an to ne"stan movement p"%nc%p&es* 1. $eadiness# the ability to learn and understand movement patterns is influenced by such thin!s as maturation coordination physi"ue and e#periences. 2. Motivation# the desire to learn is influenced by intrinsic and e#trinsic rewards. 4. &orm and tec%ni'ue; establish the basis for sound mechanical principles in learnin! a s$ill. a. (%ro)ing; principle of opposition. +1, Arm swin!s bac$ in preparation for throw5 elbow moves forward. )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
+2, Trun$ rotates toward throwin! side of the body. +4, >ei!ht of foot shifted to nonthrowin! side durin! follow%throu!h. *. Catc%ing. +1, Eyes follow ball5 elimination of avoidance reaction +fear,. +2, Arms bend at elbows5 rela#ed5 ob*ect brou!ht toward body. +4, Bonri!id catchin! style5 hands brou!ht to!ether as catch is made. c. Batting. +1, Eyes follow the ball5 elbow coc$ed in a hori6ontal position +somewhat parallel with upper chest,5 noncross !rip5 bat held above head. +2, >ei!ht shifted to front foot upon contact with ball. +4,
FITNESS A. E/e"c%se an Hea&t# 1. Conditioning# a purposeful e#ercise pro!ram to counteract heart disease and related circulatory problems. a. Factors include sound diet and re!ular e#ercise. b. 8ody conditionin!; ability of the body to meet the demands put upon it. c. Poor physical conditionin! contributes to coronary heart disease +about forty percent of all deaths, and blood circulatory problems +stro$e arteriosclerosis hypertension,. 2. +lements o conditioned itness# blood circulation is the ma*or factor in a well% conditioned individual. a. 8loodstream carries nutrients and o#y!en to every cell in the body. b. Fitness tests include o#y!en inta$e and o#y!en consumption5 air e#chan!e in the lun!s5 blood pressure. c. &itness tests measure# +1, 8ody conformation +appearance of body fitness e#cess fat around waistline. +2, 8ody balance +how muscles react in a coordinated manner,. +4, A!ility +controlled motor fitness,. +-, &uscular power +ability to e#ert force with a sudden motion,. +, Endurance +ability to sustain effort,. [email protected], Fle#ibility +ability to move the body to handle a wide ran!e of movements,. +3, )tren!th +ability of specific muscle !roups to perform specific functions bac$ buttoc$s chest etc., 3. Proper nutrition a. ,ail! caloric re'uirement# depends on a!e si6e and activity +older people re"uire fewer calories,. +1, &aintenance diet +wei!ht balance, +2, Reducin! diet; physical e#ercise burnsD e#cess calories5 reduce fat in diet +concentrated calories,5 total food inta$e must be decreased +all nutrients produce calories,. b. Proteins# includes essential amino acids5 sources include lean meat dairy products fish nuts whole !rains and beans. c. Carbohydrates; body synthesi6es and brea$s down carbohydrates from sources of breads cereals rice potatoes and beets. d. &ats# some fatty acids cannot be synthesi6ed in the body. +1, )aturated fats; solid at room temperature5 mainly from animal products lin$ed to elevated cholesterol counts. +2, ?nsaturated fats; from sources such as corn oil and soybean oil. +4, 8lood%fat levels; indicate amount of cholesterol in the body. +a, Cholesterol; natural fatty substance in the body5 found only in animal products. +b, E#cess levels +above 200 m!'dl, can indicate symptoms of arteriosclerosis. +c, Cholesterol reduction pro!rams must limit inta$e of animal products and products with lar!e amounts of saturated fats +such as avocados and palm oil,. e. -itamins# or!anic substances needed in small amounts to enable the body to complete chemical reactions. f. Minerals# inor!anic compounds needed in small amounts5 sources include mil$ +for calcium, red meats +for iron, and leafy ve!etables +for phosphorous,. !. Sodium; found naturally in many foods5 lin$ed to elevated blood pressure. )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
8. Hea&t#2"e&ate !%tness 1. "eneral conditioning; maintainin! proper health by followin! a sensible e#ercise and diet pro!ram. a. Consult a physician prior to be!innin! vi!orous e#ercise pro!ram5 determine ris$ factors. *. se a proper e/ercise program. +1, >arm%up +preparin! for vi!orous e#ercise,. +2, Pea$ e#ertion +achievin! e#ercise !oals,. +4, Cool down +returnin! body to normal condition,. c. Provide *asic itness opportunities in a nonsports atmosp%ere. +1, &aintain proper body mechanics while sittin! standin! pic$in! up items etc. +2, Provide opportunities for daily e#ercise such as wal$in! *o!!in! swimmin! calisthenics aerobic dancin! and bac$pac$in!. +4, ?se any environment for isometric e#ercise. 2. 0ndividual e/ercise program. a. uration; bris$ wal$in! +three times per wee$ for thirty minutes,5 vi!orous aerobic e#ercise +three times per wee$ for twenty minutes,. b. Aerobic capacity; to achieve your tar!et heart. c. Fitness activities; based on pro!ression and !eneral health fitness. d. Proper warm%up. +1, Appro#imately ten to fifteen minutes in duration5 consists of bendin! stretchin! rotatin! abduction and adduction. +2, Purpose is to elevate the heart rate. 3. Calist%enics anaero*ic. a. E#ercise for muscular stren!th fle#ibility +ran!e of motion, endurance +repetitions, cardiorespiratory fitness. b. E#amples of muscular and fle#ibility e#ercises include le! raises alternate $nee bends push%ups and modified push%ups and sit%ups and modified sit% ups. -. (!pical p%!sical itness testing *atter!# includes measurement of standin! hei!ht wei!ht restin! heart rate restin! blood pressure s$infold tests and timed sit% ups. C. S,%&&2"e&ate !%tness* 1. Competencies a. A!ility; ability to chan!e direction "uic$ly while controllin! body. b. Reaction time; ability to reco!ni6e a stimulus reacts to it and completes a response. c. 8alance; ability to maintain body e"uilibrium. d. Coordination; ability to complete hand%eye and foot%eye activities. e. )peed; ability to chan!e direction'location. 2. Skillrelated itness activities include the shuttle run fifty%yard dash softball throw and standin! lon! *ump. . Movement !o"ms* 1. "ames# inte!rate fundamental motor s$ills as in bowlin! dod!in! $ic$in! runnin! stri$in! throwin! and catchin!. 2. (eam Sports# 9olleyball @ players three out of five !ames. >inner scores 2 points with a mar!in of two. 8as$etball players. &ost points at the end of the wins. )oftball to 10 players. &ost runs at the end of seven innin!s wins. )occer 11 players. &ost !oals win. 3. ,ual Sports Tennis Either doubles or sin!les. Four points%fifteen thirty forty and !ame. Tie at forty%deuce. >inner must win by a mar!in of two. Remember love means nothin! in tennis. 8adminton Either doubles or sin!les. 21 points by a mar!in of two. Table Tennis Either doubles or sin!les. 11 points by a mar!in of two. 4. 0ndividual Sports )wimmin! very !ood for cardiovascular conditionin! and can be done almost anywhere there is water. Trac$ and Field scorin! varies with event. (ymnastics /ncludes tumblin!. E#cellent activity for developin! coordination and !race. Also re"uires stren!th which is developed by the activities done. This trainin! can be!in at a very early a!e with tumblin! activities and pro!ress to !ymnastics. )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
$%!t%mics /ncludes ball !ymnastics and other activities that may re"uire music. Rhythmics can be tau!ht in early elementary physical education enablin! students to develop music appreciation as well as spatial awareness. ,ance Can either be individually or with a partner. ance is especially !ood at developin! spatial awareness and the ability to follow instructions. ance instruction should be!in in elementary school. 8asic steps are wal$ and'or s$ip and are suitable to teach to first and second !raders. )$ip slide and run and'or s$ip are suitable for second and third !raders and more difficult step% hop can be tau!ht to !rades three throu!h si#. The ability to dance can also aid in the development of social s$ills and teamwor$. ance also provides an e#cellent framewor$ for multicultural education. &any dances are indi!enous to certain cultures and students can learn about different races and cultures while learnin! dances.
PHYSICAL AND 'IOLO3ICAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONS A. E/e"c%se p#$s%o&o$- c#anes %n .o$ c#em%st"$ "e&ate to e/e"c%se* 1. eart circulation +cardiorespiratory,. a. G#y!en upta$e. +1, Respiratory system; o#y!en transported throu!h circulatory system. +2, Cardiovascular system; distributes o#y!en throu!hout the body. +4, &usculos$eletal system; uses o#y!en and converts to ener!y. b. Blood pressure +8P, +force of blood pushin! a!ainst walls of the arteries under pumpin! action of the heart,. +1, Restin! 8P; normal diastolic under normal systolic under 1-0. +2, Restin! heart rate; normal ran!e forty to ninety beats per minute +trainin! will decrease this rate,. +4, &a#imum desirable heart rate; formula 220 minus your a!e e"uals ma#imum desirable heart rate durin! e#ercise. +-, esirable heart rate durin! e#ercise; si#ty percent of ma#imum desirable rate. c. $ecover!# indicates efficiency of circulatory system. d. )tren!th%buildin! e#ercises +isometric or static,; not desi!nated for heart%related fitness. e. $isk actors o %eartdisease; ci!arette smo$in! hi!h cholesterol family history of heart disease obesity. 2. Breat%ing and lungs. a. Aerobics; o#y!en%based e#ercises that stimulate the heart and lun!s such as runnin! wal$in! and swimmin!. b. Aerobic efficiency; involves the lun!s durin! performance. +1, E#ercise intensity increases body7s demand for o#y!en. +2, Fitness tests +step%test er!onometer treadmill, measure lun! capacity. c. Anaerobics; e#ercises for short periods of time at hi!h power levels +football bas$etball sprints,. 3. Bod! composition. a.
e. Transfer and feedbac$; for e#ample a child transfers s$ills learned in catchin! a bas$etball to catchin! a football. C. 4%nes%o&o$- e!!ects o! %nte"na& an e/te"na& !o"ces t#at act on t#e .o$* 1. 4%nes%o&o$* a. 5inesiolog! is concerned with understandin! how the *oints and muscles cause movement of the s$eletal structure of the body. b. Biomec%anics is considered mechanical $inesiolo!y and is concerned with the human body as a mechanical system5 it is concerned with the physics of motion. c. P%!sical principles can *e applied to *iomec%anics. +1, &otion; linear displacement velocity and acceleration. +2, Force; Bewton7s law of motion. +4, Ener!y; potential and $inetic. +-, Aerodynamics; pro*ection an!les and fli!ht velocity. +, andin! and stri$in!; elasticity and dissipation of force. 2. 6pplications o kinesiolog! and *iomec%anics. a. 8alance; ability to maintain body position and e"uilibrium in stationary and movement activities. +1, )tatic balance; center of !ravity is directly over base of support. +2, ynamic balance; center of !ravity is raised and base of support is narrowed for e#ample in the movements pro!ressin! from wal$in! to runnin!. b. Friction; effects of traction on an activity. c. Force; application to pushin! pullin! or stri$in! on ob*ect. 3. Principles o p%!sics applied to sports. a. Prediction of the movement of a ball in fli!ht; prediction of various an!les. b. &echanics of e#tendin! the arms while hittin! a baseball +concept of levers, c. &echanics of throwin! a ball with velocity involves wrist movement and ran!e of motion. d. 8loc$in! position in football involves stability. -. Compte"2en#ance pe"!o"mance %maes an #%#2spee p#oto"ap#$- se to ana&$5e .as%c movement. MUSIC an ART This section reviews basic concepts of music and art. The music and art content areas focus on the followin! instructional components; 6* Aest#et%c pe"cept%on7c"eat%ve e/p"ess%on Hnow the basic vocabulary of music and art. ?nderstand elements principles and fundamentals of music and art. 8* C&t"a& #e"%tae &a$e *ud!ments based on reco!ni6in! the !eo!raphical ori!in of music and art wor$s. ifferentiate amon! a variety of musical and art styles. raw comparisons between and amon! music and artwor$s based on their historical social emotional and artistic conte#ts. 9* Aest#et%c va&%n ?nderstandin! the meanin! of music and artwor$s. Evaluate aesthetic criteria inherent in a wor$ of art. Apply appropriate criteria in evaluatin! wor$s of art. • •
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MUSIC RE+IE: I*
AESTHETIC PERCEPTION A* T#e ecat%ona& oa&s o! aest#et%c pe"cept%on a"e1. To develop sensitivity to music7s e#pressive "ualities. 2. To increase aural awareness. 4. To encoura!e musical responsiveness. -. To encoura!e musical responsiveness involvement and discrimination. '* E&ements o! Ms%c 1. Pitc% a. &ay be hi!h or low and may repeat. b. Creates melody. c. Pro!ression of pitches creates melodic contour. d. Pro!ressive pitches create scales. e. &elodic meanin! is affected by ran!e re!ister len!th of !roupin!s and si6e of intervals. )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
2. $%!t%m a. &easured by units of time. b. These pulses or beatsD can be or!ani6ed in sets +meters,. c. Patterns can be repeated. 3. armon! a. Consists of two or more simultaneous tones. b. Three or more simultaneous tones ma$e a chord. c. Chords can be modified. 4. &orm a. The desi!nD of music is created b the interaction of its elements. b. )ections of music +phraseD, can be similar or different dependin! upon amount of repetition of elements. c. Repetition of elements creates unity. d. Contrastin! elements create variety. 7. (e/ture a. Total sound may have differin! te#turesD such as thic$ thin opa"ue and transparent. b. &otifs may have te#tures such as le!ato +smooth soundin!, and staccato +clipped soundin!,. 8. (empo a. The speed of a section or composition. b. Affects the music7s character. c. Provides contrast when tempos differ. d. Adds to e#pressiveness. e. /s referred to by specific terms for e#ample lento +slow, and presto +"uic$,. 9. ,!namics a. The comparative loudness and softness of music. b. Chan!es the e#pressive effect. c. /s referred to by specific terms for e#ample piano +soft, pianissimo +very soft, forte +loud, and fortissimo +very loud,. :. (im*re a. The uni"ue tonal "uality produced by an instrument or voice. b. Each instrument family +such as woodwinds percussion strin!s and brass, has its characteristics sound +timbre,. c. /nstruments of different cultures produce different timbres. ;. Notation a. The written form of music. b. Composed of a variety of symbols for notes rests pitch etc. II*
CREATI+E EXPRESSION A. Deve&opment o! ms%ca& s,%&&s 1. A basis for complete musical understandin!. 2. )$ill development leads to; a. )ensitivity to music7s e#pressive "ualities. b. evelopment of musical responsiveness involvement and discrimination. 8. T$pes o! ms%ca& s,%&&s 1. Auditory s$ills hearin! music. a. Attentive listenin! is the basic activity of music education. b. Aural acuity is a re"uirement of musical !rowth. c. )tudents must be able to hear tones in the mind when no sound is actually bein! produced. 2. Translative s$ills readin! and writin!. a. For notation to have meanin! e#perience with sounds must precede contact with visual symbols. b. rill on $ey si!natures meter si!natures names of isolated notes and intervals is unli$ely to promote !rowth unless tau!ht in con*unction with sin!in! and playin!.
4. Creative s$ills creatin! music. a. Creatin! music should parallel other musical activities. b. Performin! both improvised and written music should be encoura!ed. -. Pe"!o"mance s,%&&s. a. Singing. +1, &usical selections should be chosen based on the physical development of student7s voices. +2, istenin! while sin!in! should be encoura!ed to develop interpretive s$ills and understandin! of the structure and elements of music. *. Pla!ing 0nstruments. )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
+1, /nstrument playin! aids in understandin! the concepts of sound pitch rhythm etc. +2, Can be used to accompany sin!in! to produce harmony. +4, )tudents should have access to class instruction and at a certain level to playin! in orchestras and band ensembles. c. Bod! movement. +1, &ovin! to music is a learned s$ill which promotes acuity of perception. +2, A wide ran!e of music and modes should be used. d. Conducting. +1, Even youn! children can e#perience elements of music throu!h conductin! speech chants involvin! chan!es in tempo dynamics pitch and so forth. +2, Conductin! fosters sensitivity to musical e#pression. e. &usical analysis. +1, )tudents should compare their listenin! and playin! e#periences. +2, )tudents should be encoura!ed to verbali6e their musical analysis. III*
MUSICAL HERITA3E A. Fosters understandin! and s$ills within historical'cultural conte#t. 8. evelops understandin! of the styles idioms performance media and purposes of types of music which are part of our multicultural herita!e. C. Reveals the relationships between people and their music. . Communicates to students that; 1. &usic is a part of livin! and can communicate feelin!s li!hten labors and satisfy emotional needs. 2. &usic as therapy has power to satisfy emotional needs. 4. )ocial influences affect choices in music. -. Present%day musical instruments have evolved from simple be!innin!s. . &usical instruments were created from material from people7s environments. @. &usic has its own forms periods and cultural characteristics.
AESTHETIC +ALUIN3 A. E#tends beyond $nowled!e and s$ills 8. /s the comprehension of beauty and the e#pression of feelin! in music. C.
3&ossa"$ o! Ms%ca& Te"msAlle!ro Fast tempo. 8ar lines The vertical lines on the staff used to mar$ off the !roupin! of beats. 8eat The underlyin! pulse present in most music. 8rasses >ind instruments made of metal includin! the trumpet French horn trombone and tuba. Chamber music Gne to twenty performers. Chord )everal notes sounded to!ether. Clavichord A small predecessor of the piano. Clef The symbol indicatin! the pitch of the notes. Consonance The combination of tones that produces a "uality of rela#ation. issonance The combination of tones that produces a "uality of tension. ynamics The loudness of music. Fu!ue% A fu!ue is based upon a short theme called a sub*ect. The fu!ue sub*ect contains both rhythmic and melodic motifs. The openin! of the fu!ue is announced by one voice alone. A second voice then restates the sub*ect usually on a different scale. A third and then a fourth voice enter each carryin! the sub*ect.
&elody Concerns the se"uence of notes. &eter The or!ani6ation of beats into !roups. &eter si!nature The numerical symbol at the be!innin! of a composition to indicate the meter for e#ample 2'- I @' -'-.
&oderato /ntermediate tempo. &otif A recurrin! !roup of notes as the four in 8eethoven7s Fifth )ymphony. &ovement A lar!e section of a len!thy composition. Bote A musical sound of specific pitch as middle C. >hole
Gpus >or$ usually identified by a number. Gratorio A ma*or orchestral piece with solo voices and chorus. Grchestra A lar!e !roup of instrument players usually seventy%five to ninety. Percussion /nstruments sounded by stri$in! as drums cymbals and chimes. Pitch The fre"uency of a sound wave. Polyphony Choral music with several simultaneous voice%lines. Presto 9ery fast tempo. Rhythm Concerns the relative duration of the notes. Rondo The main feature of a rondo is the return of the main theme which alternates with secondary themes. For e#ample )imple rondo; A8A8A )econd rondo; A8ACA Third rondo; A8ACA8A )cale The succession of notes arran!ed in an ascendin! order.
)onata A wor$ for one or two instruments. )on! Form >hen the first section of a simple ternary form is repeated for e#ample AA8A. +A simple ternary form is music in three sections with the third !enerally an e#act repetition of the first A8A, )taff The five lines on which notes are written. )trin!s 9iolin viola cello and double bass +bass viol,. )ub*ect The principal melodic motif or phrase especially in a fu!ue. )ymphony A ma*or orchestral composition. )yncopation% A rhythmic effect produced when the e#pected rhythm. Tempo The pace of the music. Timbre The characteristic sound of a voice Tone A musical sound of a specific pitch. >oodwinds /nstruments ori!inally made of wood includin! the piccolo flute clarinet oboe En!lish horn bassoon and sa#ophone.
ART RE+IE: I*
ELEMENTS OF ART A* L%ne* 1. Can ta$e many forms such as thic$ or thin and wavy or strai!ht. 2. Gperates in terms of the visual field +for e#ample as an ed!e as the meetin! of areas or to su!!est space,. )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
4. Can hold emotional "ualities. a. )trai!ht lines su!!est ri!idity. b. ia!onal lines su!!est opposition. c. 9ertical lines su!!est stren!th. d.
1. epends on the reflection and absorption of li!ht +hue value and intensity,. 2. Affects the emotions directly. 4. /s dependent on derived li!ht +for e#ample ni!ht li!ht appears as shades of !ray and bri!ht dayli!ht casts stron! shadows,. -. /ncludes these types; a. Primary; red yellow and blue. b. )econdary; oran!e !reen and violet5 produced by mi#in! e"ual amounts of two primary colors. c. Tertiary; produced by mi#in! une"ual amounts of two primary colors. . /s used to; a. efine certain spatial "ualities of a composition. b. Provide or!ani6ation and unity. c. Create balance. d. Convey emotion and symboli6e ideas such as hope and despair. +a&e 1. /s defined as the amount of li!ht and dar$ areas in a composition5 can ran!e from blac$ to white. 2. Allow for contrasts creatin! the appearance of form on a flat surface. 4. Can; a. 8e created by the placement of lines. b. Produce te#tures. c. Create form by depictin! shadows and hi!hli!hts caused by direct li!ht. -. Allows for e#pressive "ualities and moods by usin!; a. Primarily dar$ areas to su!!est melancholy or uneasiness. b. Primarily li!ht areas to su!!est happiness and freedom. S#ape (!o"m)* 1. /s based on the use of contours. 2. Can be defined by the use of value color and te#tures. 4. Can ran!e from purely representational to completely abstract allowin! for creativity and individualism. -. &ay su!!est two dimensions or three dimensions. Te/t"e* 1. /s the su!!estion of how somethin! feels to the touch ran!in! from sil$y smooth to rou!h. 2. /s sometimes uni"ue to the medium +such as pencil crayon in$ watercolor or oil pant,. 4. Can be simulated by; a. The application of line +thin to thic$,. b. The shadin! effect that helps define space. Space* 1. /s defined as the representation of depth and the relative positions of ob*ects. 2. /s manipulated throu!h the use of such elements as color line value and perspective. 4. Techni"ues include; a. /ndistinct drawin!; su!!est distant ob*ects. b. Gverlappin! ob*ects; establishes their relative positions. c. (radation of color; creates depth. d. inear perspective; creates depth by usin! parallel lines that conver!e on a vanishin! point.
PRINCIPLES OF DESI3N A* 'ALANCE* 1. /s defined as the harmonious arran!ement of elements in a composition. 2. /s dependent on ob*ect placement si6e and direction. a. Placement; the area occupied by shapes chosen to create harmony or lac$ of it. b. )i6e; variation of ob*ect si6e to balance or unbalance a composition +for e#ample a lar!e circular shape may be balanced by three smaller circular shapes while a lar!e circular shape and a sin!le small circular shape may be unbalanced,. )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342 10
c. irection; drawin! of the viewer7s eye to elements in a composition by use of ob*ect position to represent directional forces. SYMMETRY* 1. &ay be achieved throu!h the use of une"ual elements with no a#is or central point. 2. Associated with dynamic e#pressive "ualities. ASSYMETRY* 1. Achieved throu!h the use of une"ual elements with no a#is or central point. 2. Associated with dynamic e#pressive "ualities. REPETITION* 1. /s defined as the recurrin! elements in a composition. 2. Creates rhythm +flow, unity and balance. CONTRAST* 1. /s defined as differences in form line te#ture and color. 2. Adds variety and increases viewer interest in and attention to a wor$. G&/BABCE. 1. /s defined as the emphasis of a featured point. 2. ?ses contrast between featured point and other elements.
;UESTIONS TO AS4 :HEN ANALYhere are the li!ht and dar$ areas in a composition= hat types of shapes are used= (eometric= hat te#tures are used in the pictures= >hat feelin!s do the te#tures convey= <. /s there controlled space in the picture= /. Are the elements in the picture in perspective= J. /s the composition balanced +symmetrical or asymmetrical,= hat elements are repeated= o the various elements contrast with or complement each other= . /s one area or element dominant= >hat does this indicate about the pictures= &. >hat is the overall effect of the composition +busy cluttered etc.,= hy= >hat is the artist attemptin! to convey=
3LOSSARY OF ART TERMSAbstract A nonrepresentational composition created throu!h the use of form line and color. Accent The emphasis in a picture set off by the use of value shape or contrastin! color. Advancin! colors Colors that appear to come forwardD usually red oran!e and yellow. Analo!ous colors Colors that are closely related to one another +for e#ample blue blue%!reen and !reen,. Area The flat surface within the borders of a picture. Asymmetrical ?ne"ual5 not identical on both sides of a central line. 8alance A harmonious arran!ement of the elements of a composition. 8lendin! A device used to allow one color or tone to mer!e with another. Center of /nterest The area of focus5 the part of a picture that attracts the most attention. Chroma The stren!th of purity of color. Colla!e An artwor$ made by !luin! pieces of paper photo!raphs cloth and other materials to!ether in an overlappin! desi!n. Color i!ht waves of different len!ths create colors to the eye. Color also includes hue value and intensity. Color harmony An effect that is unified and aesthetically pleasin!. Color harmony is produced by combinin! colors that are similar in one or more aspects. Color scheme The dominant color arran!ement of forms colors lines and other elements used in a drawin! or paintin!. Complementary colors Colors opposite each other on the color wheel complement each other +for e#ample red and !reen purple and yellow and oran!e and blue,. Composition The particular arran!ement of forms colors lines and other elements used in a drawin! or paintin!. Contour An outline or profile of an ob*ect. Contrast )tron! differences in form line te#ture and'or color create contrast. Cool Colors (reen blue%!reen blue and violet are cool colors often used to su!!est wet ob*ects. )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
epth The illusion of distance on a flat surface. esi!n A planned arran!ement of the composition elements. istortion Arran!in! art elements to su!!est other than a natural shape. istortion is used to create emotion in the viewer. ominant The most si!nificant element of a composition. Ed!e The outline or border of a form or shape. A sharp or distinct border is called a hard ed!e. A blurred or diffused border is called soft ed!e. Ellipse The shape of a circle when viewed at an an!le used to obtain perspective. Emphasis The stress or accent on a particular element of composition. Eye level +1, The hori6ontal plane depicted by the artist in a composition also called the hori6on line5 +2, the eye level of the artist. Focal point The center of interest in a composition. Form The actual three%dimensional shape and structure of composition ob*ect. (radation The !radual chan!e in value tint or color as rendered in a picture. arm colors Colors that are associated with heat or dry ob*ects !enerally red oran!e and yellow HEALTH This section reviews basic concept of
healthful ways and meet needs without interferin! with the ri!hts of others are ways to $eep emotional health in condition. 4. Fam%&$2Soc%a& Hea&t# the condition of a person7s relationships with others. Focusin! on e#pressin! oneself clearly and listenin! intently when others are spea$in! are e#amples of ways to $eep family%social health in !ood condition. 8. >ellness )cale 1. >ellness is another way to describe the "uality of life. /t is the "uality of life that includes physical mental%emotional and family%social health. 2. The >ellness )cale depicts the ran!es in the "uality of life from optimal well%bein! to hi!h level wellness avera!e wellness minor illness or in*ury ma*or illness or in*ury and pre%mature death 4. There are nine factors that influence health and wellness over which a person has some de!ree of control.
The Comprehensive )chool
maleness'femaleness5 acceptin! physical appearance5 acceptin! one7s learnin! style5 achievin! appropriate developmental tas$s5 learnin! about the be!innin! of new life5 reco!ni6in! the needs of people of different a!es5 preparin! for a!in!5 and sharin! feelin!s about dyin! and death. -. Nt"%t%on the area of health that focuses on plannin! a healthful diet and includes choosin! foods from the Food (uide Pyramid5 adherin! to dietary !uidelines5 readin! food labels5 ma$in! healthful food selections to reduce the ris$ of disease5 ma$in! healthful selections when dinin! out5 considerin! food safety5 maintainin! desirable wei!ht5 eatin! for healthful reasons5 and reco!ni6in! eatin! disorders. . Pe"sona& Hea&t# the area of health that focuses on ma$in! a personal health mana!ement plan that includes bein! well%!roomed5 carin! for the body5 havin! re!ular chec$ups5 followin! a dental health plan5 obtainin! ade"uate rest and sleep5 and achievin! a desirable level of physical fitness. @. A&co#o&0 To.acco0 an Ot#e" D"s the area of health that focuses on $inds of dru!s and their safe use5 understandin! the ris$ factors and protective factors associated with dru! misuse and abuse5 preventin! the misuse and'or abuse of alcohol tobacco and controlled substances5 reco!ni6in! how dru! use increases the li$elihood of 9 infection5 see$in! help for personal or family dru! misuse and abuse5 bein! aware of school and community intervention and treatment resources5 choosin! to be safe and dru!%free and usin! resistance s$ills when pressured to use dru!s. 3. Commn%ca.&e an C#"on%c D%sease the area of health that focuses on reco!ni6in! communicable and non%communicable diseases5 $eepin! the immune system healthy5 preventin! the spread of patho!ens5 reducin! the ris$ of infection with common communicable diseases )Ts and 95 obtainin! a family history for diseases5 reducin! the ris$ of cardiovascular diseases and cancer5 and reco!ni6in! ways to mana!e chronic diseases. . In>"$ P"event%on an Sa!et$ the area of health that focuses on followin! safety rules in the home school and community5 the followin! safety !uidelines for different weather conditions and natural disasters5 bein! able to !et help for emer!ency situations5 bein! s$illed in basic first aid procedures5 reducin! the ris$ of violence5 protectin! oneself from those who are dan!erous5 and stayin! safe while ridin! in a car and when en*oyin! e#ercise. . Consme" an Commn%t$ Hea&t# the area of health that focuses on choosin! sources of health%related information products and services5 analy6in! advertisin!5 reco!ni6in! and reportin! "uac$ery5 spendin! money and time wisely5 usin! school nurse and school services when appropriate5 usin! health care providers and health care facilities5 cooperatin! with people in the community who protect health and safety5 volunteerin! in school clubs and community or!ani6ations and a!encies that promote health. 10. Env%"onmenta& Hea&t# the area of health that focuses on showin! concern about environmental issues5 $eepin! the air clean5 $eepin! the water clean5 $eepin! the indoor environment free of pollution5 $eepin! noise at a healthful level5 protectin! oneself from radiation5 disposin! solid wastes properly5 recyclin!5 bein! aware of the effects of overcrowdin!5 and cooperatin! with environmental protection a!encies. 3&ossa"$ o! Hea&t# Te"msAcne is a s$in disorder characteri6e by inflammation of s$in !lands and hair follicles and the eruption of pimples. Ao&escent p"enanc$ is a pre!nancy in the years between puberty and the end of the teen years. A%"1a$ O.st"ct%on is a condition in which breathin! is partly or completely prevented by a bloc$a!e in the part of the air passa!es $nown as laryn#. A&co#o& is a psychoactive dru! that depresses the central nervous system dulls the mind impairs thin$in! and *ud!ment and lessens coordination and interferes with the ability to respond "uic$ly to dan!erous situations. A&&e"%es are hypersensitive reactions by immune system to a forei!n anti!en +protein,. Ana.o&%c ste"o%s are powerful derivatives from the male hormones that produce muscle !rowth and can chan!e health and behavior. Ast#ma is an aller!ic disease of the lun!s manifested by constrictions of the small air passa!es called bronchioles. Attent%on De!%c%t H$pe" Act%v%t$ D%so"e" (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characteri6e by inattention and fre"uently impulsiveness hyperactivity and inability to follow rules. '&ee%n is conditions in which blood escapes from the vessels that naturally contain it. 'one In>"%es are dama!e to bones that result from physical trauma. '&%m%a is an eatin! disorder in which a person has uncontrollable ur!es to eat e#cessively and then en!a!es in self%induced vomitin! and or e#cessive use of la#atives or diuretics. )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
Ca"%ac A""est is a condition in which a person7s heart has stopped beatin!. C#%& A.se is a maltreatment of a person under a!e of 1. C#%& In!ect%os D%seases are communicable disease usually in youn! persons that are caused by microor!anisms and viruses that are readily transmitted from one person to another. C#"on%c Hea&t# Con%t%ons are recurrin! or persistent health conditions. Co&2Tempe"at"e Re&ate Eme"enc%es are physical conditions that result from e#posure to low temperatures either below or above free6in!. Con>nct%v%t%s is an inflammation of membrane linin! the eyelids and coverin! the eyeball +con*unctiva,. Deat#% is the permanent cessation of brain heart and lun! function. Denta& P"o.&ems are nontraumatic tooth%related conditions that e#ist as a result of structure infections or diet. D%a.etes Me&&%ts is a condition characteri6e by an e#cess of !lucose in the blood resultin! when the pancreas produces too little or no insulin. D" A.se is the use of dru!s that results in impairment of a user7s ability to function normally or that is harmful to the user or others. Eat%n D%so"e"s are food%related dysfunctions in which a person chan!es eatin! habits in a way that is harmful to the mind or body. Ep%&eps$ is a condition in which there is a disturbance of impulses in the brain leadin! to sei6ures. E$e %n>"%es are irritations to the eye and dama!e to the eyeball. Fa%nt%n% is the partial or complete loss of consciousness that occurs when there has been reduce blood flow to the brain. Hea In>"%es are traumatic physical events that involve the head. Hea"%n Loss is the reduced ability to detect sound. Heat Eme"enc%es are physical conditions that result when a person is e#posed to hi!her than normal temperatures for varyin! periods of time. Hemop#%&%a is a hereditary disorder characteri6e by the impaired ability of the blood to clot. HI+7AIDS (Hman Immnoe!%c%enc$ +%"s, is the patho!en that destroys the body7s immune system allowin! the development of A/). Impet%o is hi!hly conta!ious bacterial infection of the s$in. Insect St%ns an '%tes are wounds from bees spiders and other insects. Nose.&ees are loss of blood from the mucous membranes that line the nose. P#$s%ca& A.se is maltreatment that harms the body. Sca.%es is infectious s$in disease caused by small parasitic mites that burrow themselves under the s$in. Sco&%os%s is a deformity of the spine in which the spine shows either the lateral or )% shaped curvature. Se/a& A.se is a maltreatment that involves inappropriate se#ual behavior between an adult and a child. Se/a&&$ T"ansm%tte D%seases (STDs, are diseases caused by patho!ens that are transmitted from an infected person durin! the intimate se#ual contact. S#oc, is a condition in which the blood cannot be circulated to all parts of the body. So!t T%sse In>"%es are in*uries to the layers of the s$in fat and muscles. Sp"a%ns an St"a%ns are stretchin! or partial or complete tearin! of li!aments at a *oints. S%c%e is the intentional ta$in! of one7s own life. +%sa& D%so"e"s are conditions that adversely affect a person7s si!ht.
PART II: ANALYZING TEST ITEMS
)ample Test :uestios and )trate!ies for the Content Hnowled!e )ection.
Each of the followin! e#amples represents an area tested on the learnin! competencies in &APE<. An analysis follows each "uestion. 1. >hich of the followin! s$ill is described in the followin! e#ample= The balance is on one foot5 the body is then thrust forward into space with the individual landin! on the same foot as the ta$eoff foot. a.
hoppin! both the body lean and the position of the hands help balance the movement of landin! on one foot. )$ippin! +8, is a series of step%hops done with alternate feet. 2. >hich of the followin! is not a measurable element of health%related fitness= a. Cardiorespiratory endurance b. 8ody composition c. Coordination d. &usculos$eletal fitness The correct answer is + C ,.
c. form d. harmony
The correct answer is +A,. All music moves in time not space. &usic must be internali6ed as it !oes by.D After a composition has been completed one must evaluate it in retrospect necessitatin! the development of a musical memory. /n other art forms the viewer has the lu#ury of analy6in! the piece in detail since it e#ists in space. Each musical composition has a rhythm a beat a pulse which e#ist in time. Form + C , is the overall structure of a piece. hen complementary colors are mi#ed to!ether in e"ual amounts the resultin! color is a. blac$ c. !ray b. brown d. white +8, Complementary colors are directly opposite each other on the color wheel as are blue and oran!e red and !reen or yellow and purple +with the first color of each pair here bein! primary and the second secondary,. >hen mi#ed to!ether in e"ual amounts complementary colors produced brown. @. >hich of the followin! most accurately describes the proper follow%throu!h body motion in the mature sta!e of throwin! a ball= a. The feet remain stationary in preparation for the throw. b. As the trun$ rotates wei!ht is completely shifted to the foot opposite the throwin! side of the body. c. /n the initial throwin! motion the person throwin! steps forward with the foot that is on the same side as the throwin! arm. d. The wei!ht is shifted from the front to the bac$ foot. 3. An early primary%level child who e#hibits poor perceptual%motor development would most li$ely have difficulty in all of the followin! EKCEPT a. runnin! for sustained period of time b. understandin! the verbal directions for a !ame c. s$ippin! bac$ward after learnin! how to s$ip d. handlin! a bean%ba! in a !roup activity . /n trac$in! an if a. the b. the c. the d. the
ob*ect the visual concentration of a primary%level child will dramatically improve ob*ect is circular ob*ect is thrown to the child with an arc or loft. child is familiar with the rules of the !ame bein! played child has modeled the e#pected outcome
. To practice catchin! s$ills a child should reach out for an ob*ect and then draw the arms toward the body as the catch is made. The purpose of this catchin! techni"ue is to )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
a. b. c. d.
combine appropriate techni"ues to facilitate twistin! and rotatin! motions bend the an$les $nees and hips while visually trac$in! the ob*ect allow the force of the ob*ect to be absorbed over a lon!er period of time model behaviors that are consistently used by professionals athletes
10. &imetics is used an important approach in teachin! basic concepts of a new motor s$ill. >hich of the followin! is the best e#ample of usin! mimetics to teach a new s$ill= a. /ncreasin! the len!th of practice sessions so that s$ills can be mastered b. Practicin! the rudiments of a s$ill without usin! an implement such as a ball bat or physical ob*ect c. Gr!ani6in! an activity !eared to the interest level of the children involved d. evelopin! a se"uential lesson based on !ross%motor s$ills. 11. /n music when a central theme alternates with subordinate themes +for e#ample A8ACA, the form is referred to as a. 8inary c. rondo b. Theme and variation d. canon 12. >hich of the followin! most closely characteri6es a smooth flowin! musical presentation= a. e!ato c. Fortissimo b. )taccato d. Pianissimo 14. A melody played or sun! by several instruments or voices enterin! at different times best defines a a. rondo c. canon b. ballet d. carol 1-. A strin! "uartet most typically consists of which of the followin! combinations of instruments= a. 9iolin viola cello b. Clarinet viola double bass violin c. 9iolin cello harp oboe d. 9iola cello bass double bass 1. /t is the succession of notes arran!ed in an ascendin! order. a. ran!e c. staff b. scale d. pitch 1@. ine can ta$e many forms it can hold emotional "ualities. >hich of the followin! su!!est ri!idity= a. 9ertical lines c. dia!onal lines b. hich of the followin! best characteri6es an asymmetrical composition= a. ?nity is easily attained throu!h the repetition of similar elements. b. A featured point is shown in contrast with its surroundin! area. c. 8alance can be achieved throu!h the use of une"ual elements. d. The eye of the viewer is not focused on any particular feature. 20. >hich of the followin! is true about a fresco= a. A fresco is associated with meticulous brush techni"ues and is usually applied on wooden surfaces. b. The bindin! material in fresco paint is e!! yol$ or some other viscous material. c. The colors of a fresco are !enerally limited to earth tones because these pi!ments are usually not affected by the calcium in plaster. d. A fresco allows the painter ma#imum fle#ibility in applyin! color.
PART III: ENHANCING TEST TAKING SKILLS )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
1. Fundamental s$ills consist of a. ocomotor nonlocomotor and manipulative s$ills. b. Twistin! bendin! and bouncin! c. Throwin! and $ic$in! d. )e"uencin! and definin! problem 2. >hat applies force to the bones to create movement= a. muscles c. li!aments b. tendons d. levers 4. 8eanba!s balls and other small ob*ects are used to teach children a. ocomotor movements c. manipulative s$ills b. Bonlocomotor movements d. tumblin! and stunts -. The cardiorespiratory system consist of the a.
c. bones d. lun!s
. Ta$in! off on both feet and landin! on both feet describes what locomotor movement= a. hoppin! c. slidin! b. leapin! d. *umpin! @. The basis of physical education is a. affective development b. movement
c. co!nitive development d. sports
3. /n addition to uni"ue contributions in the area of fitness and s$ill development physical education is also concerned with a. co!nitive learnin! c. self%concept enhancement b. affective learnin! d. alterin! future lifestyles . /n terms of cardiorespiratory fitness which of the followin! is an incorrect pairin!= a. Abduction; raisin! the arms b. Adduction; lowerin! the arms c. Circumduction; circular motion of the trun$ d. Fle#ion; stretchin! the arms . /f a third%!rade student cannot sustain the locomotor movement of s$ippin! for a distance of fifty feet the best method to improve this s$ill is to a. re"uire the student to practice the s$ill until it is mastered b. isolate the student from the class so that when practicin! s$ippin! the child7s self% esteem will not suffer c. offer a reward to the student for any attempts to improve on s$ippin! s$ills d. individuali6e the instruction by brea$in! down the pattern and reinforcin! the components. 10. A female !rade - student fre"uently refuses to dress for her physical education class. The teacher is not ma$in! much headway in convincin! the student that her behavior is inappropriate. The teacher reco!ni6es that this student is overwei!ht and withdrawn. Gf the e#amples which is the most accurate statement in e#planation of the student7s behavior= a. The student is bein! influenced by a peer !roup that considers dressin! for physical education uncool.D b. The student is e#hibitin! self%esteem problems. c. The student has e#perienced ne!ative reinforcement in previous P.E. classes. d. The teacher should use the class to improve student interaction.
11. )arun!ban!!i is a fol$son! from what province= a. Ta!alo! c. 9isaya b. /locano d. 8icol 12. /t is a son! that belon!s to the nation= a. 8allad b. Humintan!
c. Plainson! d. Bational )on!
14. /t is the hi!hness or lowness of a tone and it creates melody a. uration c. /nterval b. Pitch d. Ran!e )t. ouis Review Center /nc%avao Tel. no. +02, 22-%21 or 222%342
1-. &r. Franco a !rade @ music teacher is inte!ratin! values to his lesson. >hat musical materials will he use when teachin! the concept of nationalism= a. )ana7y >ala n! >a$as c. &ay &inamahal b. /isan! ahi d. &ay 8u$as Pa 1. orld Peace 1@. >hich of the followin! least describe as a !uidin! philosophy of Art Education= a. Art education emphasi6es the human dimension in education. b. Art education should be tau!ht not *ust for the sa$e of the end products. c. Art education should find its clima# in the mature individual who because of his e#periences has developed !reater awareness of the self and others. d. Art education must concentrate on the teachin! of specific concepts and s$ills about the elements of the arts. 13. &r. Rioflorido in his art class is teachin! some wor$s of !reat visual artists. hich classification of paintin! can this theme reflect= a. tradition c. communities b. fi!ures and )pace d. art for the people 1. >hich of the followin! is considered as warm colors= a. blue !reen pin$ c. brown violet purple b. yellow red oran!e d. lavender lilac carnation 1. &s. Joy draws a vertical line to represent an electric post in her art class. >hich meanin! of a vertical line wants &s. Joy to emphasi6e= a. di!nity c. motion b. sadness d. continuity 20. The !reat wor$ of Juan una7s )polarium depicts e#press his desi!n. >hat style of paintin! did he a. /mpressionistic b. &odernistic
interpretation of war.
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