Plumbing • International Code Council (ICC) published first International Plumbing Code (IPC) in 1997 and International Mechanical Codes in 1998. • Codes specify in great detail how plumbing or mechanical systems should be designed • Plumbing codes specify number of sanitary fixtures required based on type of occupancy
Plumbing Symbols • Symbols are used throughout construction industry to illustrate typical devices, equipment, fixtures, piping systems, and other related items. • Many projects require engineers and architects to create non-typical symbols relating to job conditions.
Plumbing Symbols • Common symbol knowledge is essential in reading blueprints regardless of the type of construction. • Symbols are fairly typical, but each architect may have varying styles.
90-Degree Offsets • 90-degree offset is one of the most common offset fittings. • Basic symbol with unique variations is used to illustrate position of 90-degree offset that turns up and turns down.
90-Degree Offsets • Circle indicates pipe that is either facing up, down, toward you, or away from you. • If line that represents pipe is connected to circle, that symbol indicates 90-degree is facing toward you or 90-degree down.
45-Degree Offsets • 45-degree offset is useful to plumber in many piping situations on jobsite. • 45-degree offset symbols indicate three different piping configurations. – 45-degree up symbol has full circle. – 45-degree down has line representing connecting pipe penetrating circle. – Inline 45-degree offset in piping system is common to offset over or under another pipe or building structure.
Tees • Tees have three connecting pipes and are illustrated similarly to 90-degree offset. • Full circle with no line penetrating through circle indicates tee is turning up on plan view. • Continuous line through circle indicates tee is turning down on plan view.
Perpendicular Tee Configuration • Perpendicular tee configuration is common on jobsite to connect branch pipe to main piping system. • Same symbol used to indicate tee turning down illustrates perpendicular branch that connects to bottom of main pipe. • When perpendicular branch pipe connects top of main pipe, 90-degree down symbol is visible and line represents main pipe, but tee up is hidden.
Perpendicular Tee Configuration
P-Trap • Plan view symbol for p-trap is combination of 90-degree up and 90-degree down symbols.
Piping • Common systems are cold water, hot water, hot water return, drain, and vent. • Three different water distribution piping systems have dots inserted to break solid line.
Piping • Vent has continuous dotted line while drain is solid line. • Any use of solid line is acceptable for identifying identifying other piping systems, and insertion of type or abbreviation for particular system is similar to inserting dots.
Cap, Reducer, and Plugs • Cleanout plug is illustrated in same manner as other plugs used for different purposes. • Cleanout installed in a floor has a cover, and the indication of a circle with the abbreviation “ CO indicates intent to plumber. ”
• Some cleanout symbols may use abbreviations that indicate installation location of cleanout, such as “WCO “WCO”” for wall cleanout.
Cap, Reducer, and Plugs
Valves and Devices • There are numerous symbols for indicating type of valve within system. • Custom symbols can be used, or industry standard symbol may be used to identify valve. • Some valve symbols include indication of handle, and actual symbols are dependent on particular drafting style of architect.
Symbols and their meanings are listed by architect for plumber’s review on blueprint page for particular job.
Valves and Devices
Fixtures • Symbols do not indicate actual fixture installed, but illustrate design intent. • Variation of sink symbol may indicate number of bowls or corner sink. • Bathtub symbol will indicate drain location.
Fixtures • Toilet symbol is typical for all jobs. • Bidet symbol is similar to toilet symbol without indication of toilet tank. • Shower symbol typically has crossed lines indicating floor is sloped toward drain.
Equipment and Drains • Circle with “WH WH”” is typical for water heater symbol. • Garbage disposal may be identified by placing “GD GD”” within kitchen sink symbol. • Floor drain symbol varies from simple circle to circle placed inside square and identified as “ FD FD”” • Dishwasher, washing machine, and dryer utilize square with their abbreviation to indicate installation location within room.