Engineered ponds, lagoons, and wetlands have been used for centuries to treat and manage m anage wastewater, and they are still widely used today. today. They require very few external energy and material inputs and provide ecosystem services for communities. This book presents a compilation of guidelines to design ponds, lagoons, and wetlands for the treatment and management of domestic or municipal wastewater, agricultural wastewater, and industrial waste. Sufficient detail and clarity is provided provided for practitioners to use this book as a reference, and for senior year or graduate college students to develop an understanding of the design concepts for these engineered natural treatment systems.
LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES ACKNOWLEDGMENTS CHAPTER 1 1
CHAPTER 2 2
xi xiii xv
1.1 Wastewater Management and Sustainabil Sustainability ity 1.1.1 Natural Treatment Systems and the New Paradigm for Wastewater Management 1.1.2 Natural Treatment Systems and Sustainable Development 1.1.3 Basics About Wastewater 1.1.4 Global Use of Natural Wastewater Wastewater Treatment Systems 1.2 Purpose and Scope of This Book
BIOLOGY OF PONDS, LAGOONS, AND WETLANDS
Topics Addressed in This Chapter 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Classif ication of Organisms by by Energy and Carbon Source 2.3 Biodiversity in Ponds, Lagoons, and Wetlands 2.3.1 Prokaryotes 2.3.2 Viruses 2.3.3 Plants, Algae, and Cyanobacteri Cyanobacteriaa 2.3.4 Protozoa 2.3.5 Macroinvertebrates 2.3.6 Fungi 2.3.7 Larger Organisms 2.4 Biological Transformati Transformations ons of Organic Matter
1 2 3 4 5
10 12 12 12 13 14 15 17 17 18
2.5 The Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus Phosphorus,, and Sulfur Cycles 2.5.1 Carbon Cycle 2.5.2 Nitrogen Cycle 2.5.3 Phospho Phosphorus rus Cycle 2.5.4 Sulfur Cycle 2.6 Pathogenic and Nuisance Organisms 2.6.1 Microorganisms Associated with Disease 2.6.2 Nuisance Organisms CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4 4
CHAPTER 5 5
SITE SELECTION AND PHYSICAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
18 19 20 20 21 21 21 22 23
Topics Addressed in this Chapter 3.1 Site Selection 3.2 Lining Materials 3.3 Earthwork, Slopes, Berms, and Embankments 3.4 Hydraulic Design of Wastewater Systems 3.4.1 Inlets and Outlets 3.4.2 Flow Control Struct Structures ures 3.5 Overview 3.6 Design Approaches 3.6.1 Loading Rate Approach 3.6.2 Reactor Theory Approach
23 23 28 29 30 30 30 33 37 37 37
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PONDS AND LAGOONS
4.1 Introduction 4.2 Pretreatmen Pretreatmentt 4.2.1 Screening 4.2.2 Grit Remov Removal al 4.3 Anaerobic Ponds 4.4 Facultative Ponds 4.5 Mechanically Aerated Ponds 4.6 Maturation and Polishing Ponds 4.6.1 Remov Removal al of Pathogens Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Organisms 4.6.2 Ammonia and Total Nitrogen Remov Removal al 4.6.3 Phosphorus Remov Removal al 4.7 Floating Macrophyte Ponds (W (Wetlands) etlands)
41 44 44 46 47 48 52 52 53 56 57 58
Topics Addressed in this Chapter 5.1 Introduction
CHAPTER 6 6
CHAPTER 7 7
5.2 Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetlands 5.2.1 Loading Rate Approach 5.2.2 Reactor Theory Approach 5.3 Vertica erticall Flow Wetlands 5.3.1 Loading Rate Approach 5.3.2 Reactor Theory Approach 5.4 Free Water Surface Flow Wetlands 5.4.1 Hydraulic Design 5.4.2 Loading Rate Approach 5.4.3 Reactor Theory Approach 5.5 Selection of Plant Species 5.6 Substrate 5.6.1 Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetlands 5.6.2 Vertica erticall Flow Wetlands 5.6.3 Free Water Surface Flow Wetlands
63 63 64 65 69 69 70 70 71 73 74 76 76 76 77
Topics Addressed in this Chapter 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Animal Waste 6.3 Food Processing Waste 6.4 Coal Combustion Residuals 6.5 Pulp and Paper Mill Waste
79 79 80 83 85 86
Topics Addressed in this Chapter 7.1 Start-up 7.2 Sludge Management 7.3 Routine Monitoring 7.4 Visual and Sensory Cues
93 93 94 95 95
R EFERENCES EFERENCES
AUTHOR B BIOGRAPHY
Potential end uses for wastewater and associated sludge
The three domains of life (and viruses viruses)) with examples of organisms that may be present in ponds, lagoons, and wetlands.
Figure 2.2. Figure 2.3. Figure 2.4.
Metabolism and carbon source diversity of microorganisms.
The electron and redox tow tower er of microbial metabolism in wastewater treatment ponds, lagoons, and wetlands.
Transformati on of organic material by different Transformation functional feeding groups in a wetland (adapted from West Virginia DEP (2015)). CPOM = coarse particulate organic organic matter; FPOM FPOM = fine particulate organic matter; DOM = dissolved organic matter.
Techniques for the constr construction uction and orientati orientation on of inlets and outlets to reduce short-circuiting (a) in wastewater ponds and lagoons with high high loading, (b) (b) in wastewater wastewater ponds and lagoons with lower lower loading, loading, (c) in lagoons lagoons or ponds used for tertiary tertiar y treatment or polishing, and (d) in horizontal flow construc constructed ted wetland cells. 31
Struct ures commonly used to control flow between pond Structures pond,, lagoon, or wetland cells: (a) stop logs, (b) slide gate or sluice gate, (c) telescoping valve, and (d) header pipe with outlet outlet control valve valve (based (based on Wis Wisconsin consin DNR (2015)). 32
Schematic of a horizontalhorizontal-crested crested weir (left) and a V-notch weir (right).
Plan and section view of a typical Parshall Parshall flume (left) and photo of a Parshall flume in Brazil (right).
LIST OF FIGURES
Typical pond system conf configurations igurations..
Bar screens at a wastewater treatment plant in Brazil that are (a) automatically mechanically cleaned and (b) manually cleaned by the operator with a rake (c).
Anaerobic pond treating domestic wastewater in Bolivia with floating scum.
Guidelines for designing anaerobic ponds for domestic wastewater systems, based on temperature, hydraulic retention time, and anticipate anticipated d BOD removal.
Free water surface flow construct constructed ed wetlands used for tertiary terti ary wastewater treatment in Lakeland, Florida
Farmers in Cochabamba, Bolivia harvest and dry floating aquatic plants from a wastewater treatment system for reuse as animal feed and for soil amendment.
Figure 4.3. Figure 4.4.
Figure 5.1. Figure 5.2.
Table 2.1. Table 3.1.
Table 3.2. Table 3.3.
Table 4.1. Table 4.2. Table 4.3. Table 4.4.
Macroinvertebrates commonly found in wastewater treatment ponds, lagoons, and wetlands
Overview of physical design and constru construction ction considerations for water treatment ponds, lagoons, and wetlands.
Equations for chemical reactor theory models assuming steady state and (pseudo) f irst order reaction rates
Natural background concentrati concentrations ons of water quality parameters for for constructed wetlands wetlands (adapted (adapted from US EP EPA A (200 (2000c)) 0c))
Types of wastewater treatment ponds and their distinguishing characteristic characteristicss
Concentrati ons of inhibitor Concentrations inhibitory y substances in anaerobic ponds
Methods used to determi determine ne the loading rate and size of facultat facultative ive ponds
Mechanisms and guidelines for the removal of different types of pathogens in natural wastewater treatment systems
Guidelines for the use of chemical coagulants to remove phosphorous phosphoro us 58
Floating macrophytes commonly used in wastewater treatment ponds
Parameters for the design of floating macrophyte ponds
Design recommendation recommendationss for hydraulic conductivity of media used for horizontal subsurface flow wetlands
Ranges of values for the design of horizontal subsurface flow wetlands
LIST OF TABLES
Techniques used for the operation of vertical flow constructed construc ted wetlands
Ranges of values for the design of vertical flow wetlands 70
Recommended surface loading criteria and hydraulic retention times for the design of free water surface flow constru constructed cted wetlands
Ranges of values for the design of free water surface flow wetlands
Characteri stics of animal manure and recommended Characteristics lagoon volume to achieve volumetric loading rate of 250 g BOD5/m3/d
Characteri stics of food processing waste streams; Characteristics typical (range)
Design and operating requirements stipulat stipulated ed by the US EP EPA A for coal ash surface impoundments
Operation and maintenance tasks for wastewater ponds, lagoons, lagoons, and wetlands wetlands
Visual and sensory cues for malfunction issues in wastewater ponds, lagoons, and wetlands
Table 5.6. Table 6.1.
Table 6.2. Table 6.3. Table 7.1. Table 7.2.
I would like to acknowledge Stewart Oakley, whose short courses on waste stabilization pond design have inspired thousands of students and professionals throughout the world, including myself. I first took Dr. Oakley’s Oakley’s short course in 2009 at the AIDIS conference in Guatemala City. I acknowledge my PhD advisor Jim Mihelcic, for giving me the opportunity to study waste stabilization ponds. I would also like to acknowledge Jerry Hopcroft and Premkumar Narayanan, for helping review and format the book. Finally, I would like to acknowledge Wendy Antunez for her help and support.
WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT WASTEWA AND SUSTAINABILITY SUSTAINABILITY NATURAL NA TURAL TREA TREATMENT TMENT SYSTEMS AND THE NEW PARADIGM FOR WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT
The paradigm for wastewater wastewater treatment treatment is changing. Alterations in population populati on and climate are causing freshwater to become increasingly scarce. The management of water resources does not occur in isolation—there are irrefutable irr efutable linkages linka ges between water, water, energy, energy, and nutrients nutrient s in the environ environment. ment. The ways water and nutrients are currently managed and the ways energy is currently produced are no longer sustainable. The new paradigm for the treatment of wastewater is to reclaim water, energy, and nutrients rather than remove them prior to discharging treated effluent to receiving waters (Guest et al., 2009). Engineered natural systems have been used for centuries to manage and treat wastewater wastewater throughout the world. In the aftermath of the industrial revolution, mechanized water-treatment technologies were developed. While many of these mechanized technologies are highly efficient, they often require high energy and material inputs. Natural Natur al systems sy stems requi r equire re little lit tle to t o no exter external nal energy en ergy and an d material mate rial inpu inputs. ts. Mechanized wastewater treatment technologies are certainly appropriate in a variety of settings, including low-income, middle-income, and rural high-income regions. These systems are particularly well suited for locations where wastewater is reused in agriculture, making them particularly appropriate for the new paradigm of wastewater wastewater management with resource resour ce recovery reco very priorities. Treated wastewater may be discharged to receiving waters, injected into groundwater, applied to soil, or reused for a particular activity (e.g., aquaculture, industrial cooling). If treated water is discharged to receiving waters (rivers, streams, lakes, oceans, and aquifers), it must be treated to
PONDS, LAGOONS, AND WETLANDS *
Discharge to surface water Industrial Treated Water
Injection to groundwater Agriculture Reuse
Ponds, Lagoons, and Wetlands
Send to landfill
Application to soil
Old paradigm of wastewater management New paradigm
Production of biomaterials
Figure 1.1. Potential end uses uses for wastewater wastewater and associated associated sludge.
different standards (particularly with respect to nutrient remo removal) val) than if it were applied to land or reused for some other purpose. In many regions, water quality discharge standards also depend on the existing quality and flow rate or volume of the receiving water body. With increasing water scarcity, wastewater utilities in many regions will shift from a “treatment and discharge” approach to one that prioritizes water reuse and resource recovery reco very (Figure 1.1).
NATURAL NA TURAL TREA TREATMENT TMENT SYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
The use of natural wastewater treatment systems driven by sunlight, gravity, and natural biological processes is synergistic with sustainable development. These systems help offset the need for energy from fossil fuels, and they can also create habitats for wildlife and may play vital roles in amphibian conservation (especially if design is approached from an ecological perspective) (Shulse et al., 2010; Worrall et al., 1997). Natural wastewater treatment systems can become green spaces, which serve as community resources, promoting social and environmental benefits and improving the overall well-being of community members (Wright Wendel et al., 2011). Instead of simply discharging treated water into receiving waters, alternative uses of treated water (e.g., reuse or land application)
should always be evaluated. Natural systems such as ponds, lagoons, and wetlands have been found to have more favorable environmental, social, and economical sustainability factors than mechanized technologies, especially for treatment plants receiving receiving less than f ive million gallons per day (Muga and Mihelcic, 2008). Natural Natur al wa waste stewa water ter tr treat eatmen mentt sys system temss can bec becom omee gr green een spa spaces ces that serve as community resources, promoting social and environmental benefits and improving the overall well-being of community members.
Natural treatment systems are widely used in small cities and towns throughout throu ghout the th e world. world. However, However, the needs of these communities commu nities are rapidly rapid ly changing. The majority of population growth over over the next few decades is expected to occur in smaller cities and towns with current populations of less than 100,000 (WaterAid/BPD, 2010). There is a need to ensure the appropriate design of wastewater systems to meet the changing needs of these populations. Relative to larger urban centers, small cities and towns often have plenty of available land, but limited resources, and as a result, they may have have less ability to pay for the highly trained technical staff and external energy and material inputs needed to run mechanized wastewater treatment systems. Natural systems require larger areas of land than mechanized systems, but they require little to no external inputs of energy and materials, and they are inexpensive to run and require very little maintenance. Another economic advantage is that the purchase of land needed for these systems, while expensive, is a recoverable expense, unlike the purchase of electricity or material material inputs.
BASICS ABOUT WASTEWA WASTEWATER TER
Wastew astewater ater from households contains a variety of contaminants; the pollutants in waste wastewater water are most commonly measured in terms ter ms of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), as well as nitrogen (total and ammonia) and phosphorus. Wastewater produced by households (domestic wastewater) comes from dishwashing, showering, showering, laundering, and toilet flushing. Wastew astewater ater produced by industrial facilities can vary drastically in composition, depending on how the water is used and the type of industry. Industrial facilities may be required to provide some type of pretreatment prior to discharging wastewater to a municipal sewer system. Industrial wastewater can contain higher concentrations of contaminants such as salts, heavy metals,
PONDS, LAGOONS, AND WETLANDS
organic or inorganic chemicals, and emerging chemical or biological contaminants. Prior to designing a natural wastewater wastewater treatment system, it is essential to know the source of the wastewater and its composition, as this can greatly affect the design requirements. The wastewater flow rate per capita or per industrial facility can also vary from region to region and may be affected by the following factors: population density (more densely populated areas tend to use less water per capita); cultural norms and customs that affect water use in the household (e.g., in some countries, dishwater and shower water is not discharged to the sanitary sewer system); and characteristics of the sew sewer er collection system (older systems typically have have higher contributions from inflow and infiltration). inf iltration). For more information about typical wastewater characteristics and flow rates, the reader should consult existing textbooks (e.g., Metcalf and Eddy, Eddy, 2003). The different stages of waste wastewater water treatment typically include pretreatment (preliminary treatment), primary treatment, secondary treatment, and tertiary treatment. Pretreatment consists of the removal or alteration of larger materials and denser solids that can obstruct or interfere with treatment processes or equipment downstream in the waste wastewater water treatment plant. Primary treatment encompasses the remo removal val of heavier suspended solids and lighter floating materials from the wastewater wastewater.. Secondary treatment follows primary treatment and involves the removal of dissolved organic material using biological processes. Finally, tertiary treatment involves inv olves the removal of nutrients, pathogens, and emerging chemical pollutants. Lagoons, ponds, and wetlands can be used for primary primary,, secondary, secondary, and/or tertiary tertiar y wastewater wastewater treatment.
GLOBAL USE OF NA NATURAL TURAL WASTEWA WASTEWATER TER TREATMENT SYSTEMS
Engineered ponds, lagoons, and wetlands are some of the oldest technologies used for water management and treatment and remain one of the most widely used technologies in the world today. For example, more than half of the wastewater treatment facilities in the United States utilize ponds (US EPA, 2011). Approximately 2,500 wastewater treatment systems in France use wastewater treatment ponds, many of them having been constructed in the 1970s to replace malfunctioning activated sludge systems (Mara and Pearson, 1998). Because they are relatively inexpensive and simple to construct, operate, and maintain, they have been described as one of the most important technologies for the treatment of wastewater in small towns and in developing countries, especially if the effluent is used for irrigation (Feachem et al., 1983; Mara, 2003; Oakley, 2005a;
Peña Varon et al., 2000; Shuval et al., 1986). Although they are most commonly used in small cities and towns, there are also examples of pond p ond,, lagoon, and wetland systems that serve cities with populations of more than one million (Mara, 2003). In the United States, many state health and environmental agencies are in the process of modifying nutrient effluent limits for wastewater treatment plants, specifically focusing on ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus. These stricter effluent discharge limitations have forced many towns and cities to trade in their pond, lagoon, or wetland systems for mechanized systems with advanced nutrient removal capabilities. For instance, the city of East Grand Forks, Minnesota recently chose to abandon its waste wastewater water lagoon system, after years of pressure from the state Pollution Control Agency (Jewett, (Jewett, 2015). The city of Polson, Montana had a lagoon system that boasted treatment costs of only $8.25 per person per year as of 1997, had been presented with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 award for operation and maintenance, and was achieving effluent BOD concentrations of 16 mg/L, and TSS concentrations of 38 mg/L (National Small Flows Clearninghouse, 1997); however, they recently decided to decommission this system in favor of a mechanized sequencing batch reactor in order to meet stricter discharge regulations (Burns, 2015). The Missouri Department of Natural Resources is now requiring most lagoon systems in its state to comply with varying ammonia-nitrogen effluent concentrations, which generally range between 1 and 3 mg/L, and based on recent data reported for the NPDES permits, less than half of the 300 lagoon systems in Missouri are currently cur rently able to meet these concentrations on a consistent basis (Espinosa et al., 2016). Another main advantage of using natural waste wastewater water treatment systems is that they provide ecosystem services, which can enhance biodiversity, provide habitat for endangered and threatened species, and serve as a community green space that can enhance the overall well-being well-being of the local population.
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THIS BOOK
The purpose of this book is to summarize existing design guidelines for natural pond, lagoon, and wetland systems that can be used for the treatment and management of wastewater. The emphasis is on design for the reuse and reclamation reclamat ion of water, nutrients, and energy ene rgy from wastewater. wastewater. This book is intended for practitioners, as well well as senior-year senior-year or graduate-level college and university students who need a quick reference for the design of these engineered natural treatment systems. It should be noted by the reader that the procedures used for the design of natural wastewater
PONDS, LAGOONS, AND WETLANDS
treatment systems are not always unanimously accepted worldwide, and design guidelines can differ between regions for the same type of system. Therefore, in this book, multiple procedures are often summarized to design the same type typ e of system. It is the engineer’s engineer’s job to use judgment when choosing which procedure is the most appropriate for a given situation. This chapter is an introduction to the concepts of the new paradigm for wastewater management and sustainability, as they pertain to the natural systems covered in this book. Chapter 2 contains an overview of the biology and wildlife that can influence the performance of natural water treatment systems, including microorganisms, macroinvertebrates, algae, plants, and larger organisms. In Chapter 3, considerations for the physical design and construction of natural water treatment systems are covered. Chapter 4 includes guidelines for the design, operation, and maintenance of ponds and lagoons used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. Chapter 5 includes design guidelines for constructed wetlands. Chapter 6 includes a summary of special considerations for ponds, lagoons, and wetlands used to treat industrial wastewater wastewater.. Chapter 7 covers the most important operation and maintenance considerations for wastewater treatment ponds, lagoons, and wetlands.
Facultative pond, 42, 48–51 loading rate and size of, 50–51 primary,, 48–49 primary secondary, 48–49 types of, 48 Fecal coliforms, removal of, 39 Floating aquatic plant treatment systems, 61 Floating macrophyte ponds (wetlands), 42, 58–60 parameters for for design of, 60 used in wastewater treatment ponds, 59 Flood zones, 25 Flow control structures, 30–33 Flue-gas desulfurization, 85–86 Fly ash, 85–86 Food processing waste, 83–85 characteristicss of, 84 characteristic Free-living helminths, 7 Free water surface flow wetlands, 62 hydraulic design, 70–71 hydraulic retention times for, 73 loading rate approach, 71–73 ranges of values for, 74 reactor theory approach, 73–74 use of internal obstructions in, 71 Fungal cultures, addition of, 85 Fungi, 17 G
Groundwater, 1, 93 monitoring, 89–90
Habitat restoration, 26–27 Harbor floating lemna (duckweed), 8 Hazardous substance, 85 High-rate algal pond, 42 Horizontal free water surface, 61–62 Horizontal subsurface flow wetlands, 62 aspect ratio (L/W) for, 64 hydraulic conductivity of media used for, 64 ranges of values for, 65 water level in, 63 Household, water use in, 4 Human waste, 8 Hydraulic conductivity of media, 64 design recommendations for, 64 Hydraulic design of wastewater systems flow control structures, 30–33 free water surface flow wetlands, 70–71 inlets and outlets, 30
characteristics of animal manure characteristics and recommended, 81–82 long-term maintenance activities in, 94–95 operation and maintenance tasks for, 96–98 physical phy sical design and and construction considerations for, 34–36 start-up period for, 93 systems, 5 in Missouri, 5 treatment in, 85 usage of, 85 visual and sensory cues for malfunction issues in, 99–100 Land costs, 27 Lining materials, 28–29 in situ, 28 Loading rate approach, 69 design approaches, wastewater treatment, 37 free water surface flow wetlands, 71–73 horizontal subsurface flow wetlands, 63–64 vertical flow wetlands, 69
Industrial waste, 79 Industrial wastewater, 3–4 animal waste, 80–82 coal combustion residuals, 85–86 food processing waste, 83–85 pulp and paper paper mill waste, waste, 86–92 Inhibitory phenolic substances, 85 In situ lining materials, 28 Irrigation, 4–5
Tanks-in-series (TIS) model, 65 Techniques used for the operation of, 66–68 Tertiary wastewater treatment, 62 Total suspended solids (TSS), 3 Transformation of organic material, 17 “Treatment and discharge” approach, 2 V
Vertebr ertebrates, ates, 8 animals, 8 Vertical flow wetlands, 62, 65 loading rate approach, 69 reactor theory approach, 69–70 techniques used for the operation of, 66–68 Viruses, 8, 12–13 domains of life, 9 Visual and sensory cues, 95 Volatile solids, 95 W
Wastewater basics about, about, 3–4 characteristics and flow rates, 4 compounds found in, 11 design of, 3 domestic, 79 lagoon system, 5
Wastewater (continued (continued ) organic material in, 94 pollutants in, 3 potential end uses uses for, for, 2 pretreatment, 4 primary treatment, 4 produced by by households, households, 3 produced prod uced by indu industrial strial facilit facilities, ies, 3 secondary treatment of, 4, 71–72 tertiary treatment, 4 Wastewater ponds operation and maintenance tasks for, 96–98 start-up period for, 93 visual and sensory cues for malfunction issues in, 99–100 Wastewater treatment, 1, 41, 72 anaerobic ponds, 47–48 in Brazil, 45 configurations, 43 facultative ponds, 48–51 fundamentall roles in, 7 fundamenta lagoons, 72 maturation and polishing ponds, 52–53 ammonia and total nitrogen removal, remov al, 56–57 periphyton periph yton ponds, ponds, 56 phosphorus remo removal, 57–58 57–58 removal of pathogens and fecal indicator organisms, 53–56 mechanically aerated ponds, 52 physical phys ical design and and construction considerations for, 34–36
plants, 5 pretreatmentt pretreatmen grit removal, 46 screening, 44–46 stages of, 4 system, floating aquatic plants from, 76 technologies, 85 technologies for, 4–5 Water hyacinth ponds, 61 Water quality discharge standards, 2 parameters, 40 40 Water resources, management of, 1 Water use in household, 4 Well-being of community members, 2–3 Wetlands, 3–5, 7, 92. See also Specific types biological biolog ical community community in, 7 long-term maintenance activities in, 94–95 operation and maintenance tasks for, 96–98 physical phy sical design and and construction considerations for, 34–36 visual and sensory cues for malfunction issues in, 99–100 Wineries, 85 Z
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