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Sony has undergone major changes since its change of CEO in 1997. This report discusses about the major phases of the various leadership styles displayed by its past CEOs and current CEO Kaz…Full description
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“Necessity is the mother of invention”, famous saying formed the basis of modern computer .The early history starts from:
ABACUS: Very first computing device “ABACUS “ ABACUS “also called Soroban invented in 600 BC was the first computing device.
Napier Rods: Napier Rods was a card board multiplication calculator .It was designed in early 17 th century
1642: Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician and philosopher, invented the first operating model of mechanical digital calculator using gears, called the Arithmetic Machine “PASCALINE”
It was used for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Charles is the “The Father of Computers”
1822 : His great invention “Difference engine”
was to perform mathematical calculations It was fully automatic and commanded by a fixed instruction program
1842 “The Analytical Engine “ was a automatic
machine.It could do 60 addition per minute The idea of analytical engine didn’t take physical form but served as a base for modern digital computers
1890: Dr. Herman Hollerith
introduced the first electromechanical, punched-card data-processing machine It was used to compile information for the 1890 U.S. census His company would eventually become International Business Machines (IBM) This paper based machine represents the origin of computer database software
1941:: Conrad Zeus from 1941 Germany, introduced the first programmable computer
It solved complex engineering equations.
It was also the first to work on the binary system instead of the decimal system
(1940 onwards )
First generation of computers (1942-1955)
Features : First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes which were glass (tubes) that controlled and amplified the electronic signals
1942 : It was developed by Dr John Atanasoff to solve certain mathematical equations.
It was the first electronic digital computer
It used 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitor for storage
1944 : Mark 1 Computer
It is also known as Automatic sequence Controlled Calculator It is also known as Automatic sequence computer.
It was first automatic calculating machine designed by Howard A Aiken with IBM Corporation
could perform five basic arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and table reference It took approximately 0.3 seconds to add two numbers and 4.5 seconds for multiplication of two numbers Disadvantages: It
was huge in size
1946: The ENIAC (Electrical 1946: Numerical Integrator and Calculator) machine was developed by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, Jr. at the University of Pennsylvania. Reason :
It was developed for military need
used 18,000 vacuum tubes
thirty tons and
occupied a thirty-by-fifty-foot space. It
was programmable only by changing the wiring, not through software changes, but was productive from 1946 to 1955 and was used to compute artillery firing tables
1949 :The EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic calculator) was made by the British
It could do addition in 1500 microseconds and multiplication in 4000 seconds
1951 : The UNIVAC ( universal automatic Computer) was the first digital computer invented by Mauchly and Ekert
used vacuum tubes
received delivery of first UNIVAC in 1951 after U.S. Census processing started UNIVAC
I, was the first computer designed and sold commercially, specifically for business data-processing applications It
used a 100 megabyte hard drive
could be used for business
and scientific purpose
Second Generation Of Computers (1955-1964)
Features : Vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors. Transistor is a small device that transfers electronic signals through resistors
1960: DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) introduced the Programmed Data Processor,PDP1
The PDP-1 was a mainframe computer famous for its low costs
The PDP-1 did not contain many advanced peripherals or softwares
1961:The IBM 1400 Series were a major breakthrough for IBM The first computer in this series was IBM 1401. IBM 1401 used transistors instead of the vacuum tubes found in previous IBM computers The system contained many peripherals which included a new high-speed printer. This printer could print 600 lines per minute
Third Generation Of Computers (1965-1975)
Features : In this generation microelectronics technology was introduced that made it possible to integrate large number of circuit elements into very small surface of silicon known as chips.This new technology was called INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (ICs)
PDP-8 minicomputer was designed & built from 1965 to 1980 It
was the first mass market minicomputer developed for educational purpose It was implemented using four generations of technology: Germanium transistors,SSI,MSI and LSI Additionally it possesses two attributes i.e. continuing interest in it's architecture and implementation
Fourth Generation Of Computers (1976-1989)
Features : In this generation microprocessors were used. MICROPROCESSOR is a small chip containing thousands of ICs on it. It greatly reduced the size of the computer.
1976: Jobs and Wozniak designed and built the Apple I computer.
Then the following year 1977 introduced the Apple II microcomputer
During 1976-77 many other personal computer brands were marketed
These both have characteristics of a PC
In 1981,IBM tossed its hat into the personal computer, easily fit on a table or desk They were available in taller or narrow size and have common features of personal computers 1980: IBM offers Bill Gates the opportunity to develop the operating system called MS-DOS for its new IBM personal computer 1981: The IBM PC was introduced with a 16-bit 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 microprocessor and used Microsoft's MS-DOS operating system.
1984 : Apple Computers launched (during the Super Bowl) the Macintosh, the first successful mouse-driven computer with a graphic user interface
It was based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor
Its applications that came as part of the package included MacPaint, which made use of the mouse, and MacWrite
Fifth Generation Of Computers (1990-onwards)
Features: ULSI (Ultra Large scale Integration) and
networks like LAN (Local Area Network) and WAN (Wide Area Network) are used in this generation. Mobile computers are introduced
Deep Blue is a chess playing computer developed by IBM On 11 May 1997,
The machine won a six-game match by two wins to one with three draws against world champion Garry Kasparov
Kasparov accused IBM of cheating and demanded a rematch, but IBM declined and dismantled Deep Blue. Kasparov beat a previous version of Deep Blue in 1996
1999:: Palm Computing introduced the Palm VII handheld computer 1999
MB RAM, and telephone modem port which can be connected to a separate cell phone.
Two AAA batteries power the unit for 2-3 weeks. The
cost to connect to the internet was high
1993 : Newton Message Pad was the first company to offer PDAs. It is one of the most popular light weight mobile device Its primary input device is “Stylus” looks like small ballpoint but uses pressure instead of ink
stands for “Personal Digital Assistant” It’s a handheld device designed for personal organizer that combines Calendar Appointment book address book Calculator note pad , PDAs began as pen-based instead of a keyboard for input They also incorporated handwriting recognition features.
Designed in 1979 by William Moggridge, and was used by NASA in the space shuttle program It came with a five-inch screen Two 5 1/4 floppy drives A large collection of bundled software programs It contains a battery Pack Can be placed on a lap and can carried any where.
It is a predicted super powerful computer of the future It can carry out calculations with two quantum bits (QUBITS) Quantum computers have superior qualities in comparison to the type of computers currently in use. If they are realized, then they will be able to carry out tasks that are beyond the abilities of all normal computers.
are computerized robots performing human functions more efficiently They
are of human structure
The Linux Watch is currently in its prototype stage. It means that a model of the watch has already been built, or is being built, but the product is not yet ready to be made available to the general public. This is a watch-like product that not only has the functions of a regular wristwatch, but also allows its user to communicate wirelessly with personal computers, cell phones, and other like machines. With the Linux Watch, you can send and receive e-mail, receive messages, and access calendars and address books. (Seiko’s computerized watch)----»
The idea is to have a small wallet-sized PC that could be used to display messages, schedules, sc hedules, weather, and stocks, to send and receive e-mail and fax, and to play games. It could also connect to the Internet and to the "Information Superhighway." In addition, the wallet PC would eliminate the need for cash. Instead of using coins and paper bills, money would be transferred using digital cash stored in the Wallet PC. To prevent people from stealing and using your Wallet PC, each wallet would have "keys" that identify its owner. Thus, nobody could use someone else's PC. For more security, there are passwords and even voice or fingerprint recognizer
The Wearable PC is also currently in its prototype stage. This new innovation is a belt-worn PC that uses a headset display and a hand-held controller. It is completely mobile and is ideal if you want hands-free access to data and other information via the computer! It can connect to the Internet wirelessly and also includes a microphone and an earphone for input and output.
Computers to be 'oxygen of the future' By
the year 2010, scientists predict we will
be immersed in a sea of miniature computers.
Accessible information Information
will be available at every place and every time.
Tangible Acoustic Interface It allows users to convert virtually any tangible objects such as table tops, walls, and windows, into interactive surfaces