Sufism invites man to know himself. Man is a being com-prising body and soul. Similar to foods not being ignored for the body for a healthy life, food for the soul should also not be ignored…Full description
THE NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGY Why are some individuals shy and others outgoing? What causes people, such as Kira and Ray, to become attracted to one another and fall in love? Can we predict which re...
Idries Shah, yang nama lengkapnya Nawab-Zada Sayyid Idries Shah al-Hasyimi, adalah Syekh Besar (Syekh al-Kabir) Sufi dan anak sulung Nawab asal Sardana, dekat Delhi di India. Keluarganya berasal da...
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Themes in Indian History II; Class XII History
Shamanism SufismFull description
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Suﬁ psych psychology ology From Wikipedi Wikipedia, a, the free encyclopedia There are three three central central ideas in Suﬁ Islamic psychology, psychology, which are the Nafs (self, ego or ps or psyche), yche), the Qalb Qalb (heart) (heart) and the Ruh Ruh (spirit). (spirit). The origin and basis of these these terms terms is Qur'anic Qur'anic and and they have been expounded upon by centuries of of Suﬁc Suﬁc commentaries. [hi hide de]]
1 Overview 2 Nafs 3 Qalb 4 Ruh 5 Happiness in Suﬁsm 6 Al-Ghazali 7 See also 8 References 9 Literature 10 External links
Overview Nafs is considered to be the lowest principle of man. Higher than the nafs is the Qalb (heart), and the Ruh (spirit). This tripartition forms the foundation of later, more complicated systems; it is found as early as the Koranic commentary by Ja'far al-Sadiq. He holds that the nafs is peculiar to the zalim (tyrant), the qalb to the muqtasid (moderate), and the r "h to the s !biq (preceding one, winner); the z !lim loves God for his own sake, the muqtasid loves Him for Himself, and the s !biq annihilates his own will in God's will. Bayezid Bistami, Hak # m at-Tirmidh # , and Junayd have followed this tripartition. Kharr!z, however, inserts between nafs and qalb the element tab', "nature," the natural functions of man. The spiritual body (soul) was created in adult form of the living body. At almost the same time in history, N"r # saw in man four different aspects
of the heart, which he derived from the Koran: Sadr (breast) is connected with Islam (S !ra 39:23); qalb (heart) is the seat of " m#n (faith) (S !ra 49:7; 16:106); fuad (heart) is connected with marifa (gnosis) (S !ra 53:11); and lubb (innermost heart) is the seat of tauh" d (S !ra 3:190).
The Suﬁs often add the element of sirr, the innermost part of the heart in which the divine revelation is experienced. Jafar introduced, in an interesting comparison, reason, aql, as the barrier between nafs and qalb -"the barrier which they both cannot transcend" (S "ra 55:20), so that the dark lower instincts cannot jeopardize the heart's purity. Each of these spiritual centers has its own functions, and Amr al-Makk # has summed up some of the early Suﬁ ideas in a myth: God created the hearts seven thousand years before the bodies and kept them in the station of proximity to Himself and He created the spirits seven thousand years before the hearts and kept them in the garden of intimate fellowship (uns) with Himself, and the consciences—the innermost part—He created seven thousand years before the spirits and kept them in the degree of union (wa$l) with Himself. Then he imprisoned the conscience in the spirit and the spirit in the heart and the heart in the body. Then He tested them and sent prophets, and then each began to seek its own station. The body occupied itself with prayer, the heart attained to love, the spirit arrived at proximity to its Lord, and the innermost part found rest in union with Him.
Nafs "Nafs" (self or ego) is the aspect of the psyche that can be viewed along a continuum, and has the potential of functioning from the grossest to the highest level. The self at its lowest level refers to our negative traits and tendencies, controlled by emotions, desires and its gratiﬁcation. Suﬁc psychology identiﬁes seven levels of the nafs, which have been identiﬁed in the Quran. The process of growth depends on working through these levels. These are: tyrannical self, regretful self, inspired self, serene self, pleased self, pleasing self and the pure self.
Qalb In Suﬁ psychology the heart refers to the spiritual heart or qalb, not the physical organ. It is this spiritual heart that contains the deeper intelligence and wisdom. It holds the Divine spark or spirit and is the place of gnosis and deep spiritual knowledge. In Suﬁsm, the goal is to develop a heart that is sincere, loving and compassionate, and to develop the heart's intelligence, which is deeper, and more grounded than the rational, abstract intelligence of the mind. Just as the physical heart supplies blood to the body, the spiritual heart nourishes the soul with wisdom and spiritual light, and it also puriﬁes the gross personality traits. According to Suﬁc psychology emotions are from the self or nafs, not from the heart. The qalb mediates between the Nafs and spirit. Its task is control the nafs and direct the man toward the spirit.
Ruh The spirit ruh is in direct connection with the Divine, even if one is unconscious of that connection. The spirit has seven levels or facets of the complete spirit. These levels are: mineral, vegetable, animal, personal, human, secret and secret of secret souls. Each level represents the stages of evolution, and the process that it goes through in its growth. The spirit is holistic, and extends to all aspects of the person, i.e. the body, the mind and the soul. Each level of the spirit has valuable gifts and strengths, as well as weaknesses. The goal is to develop the strengths and to achieve a balance between these levels, not forgoing the lower ones to focus only on the higher ones. In traditional psychology, Ego psychology deals with the animal soul, Behavioral psychology focuses on the conditioned functioning of the vegetable and animal soul, Cognitive psychology deals with the mental functions of the personal soul, Humanistic psychology deals with the activities of the human soul and Transpersonal psychology deals with egotranscending consciousness of the secret soul and the secret of secret souls. Spirit is beyond the realm of creation. It is directly connected with Alam e Lahoot(Unity of attributes and names) which is from Amr Allah (Command of Allah), Therefore Spirit already knows everything including its own
Happiness in Suﬁsm This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. (June 2016) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Suﬁsm aspires towards developing a soft, feeling, compassionate heart. Understanding through the ‘‘heart’s intelligence’’ is superior to understanding through the intelligence of the head. Indeed, the intelligence of the heart is the only instrument that can be used to discover the ultimate truth. To Suﬁs, reason is limited in many ways and cannot outgrow its inherent limitations. In particular, when reason denies intuitive knowledge and ‘‘blinds the eye of the heart’’, it becomes the target of strong criticism from Suﬁsm. This stands in stark contrast to the Aristotelian and contemporary western emphasis on logical reasoning as the highest human faculty, which should rule the whole personality. On this basis, happiness cannot be achieved by reason and intellect, rather happiness is pursued via intuition and mystical experience. Another important concept in Suﬁsm is the ego (the self or the nafs). The ego is a part of our psyche that consistently leads us off the spiritual path, a part of the self which commands us to do evil. The ego can impede the actualization of the spiritual potential of the heart if not controlled by the divine aspects of the personality. To achieve authentic happiness, the ego should be actively fought against throughout life.  The ultimate state of happiness for a Suﬁ is the annihilation of the individual self. This state refers to the destruction of the individual self to become one with the Divine Being.