Modalities governing the loss of civilian protection in armed conflicts
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Description : Gas cyclone thesis
CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND This chapter presents the problem of the researchers sought after the foundation for which to base the study. Introduction "Language is not everything in education, but without language, everything is nothing in education." (Wolff, 2006). The foundation of every state is the education of its youth. The failure of education represents the inability of society to properly perpetuate itself through succeeding generations. Many years ago Filipinos dwell on the notion that the best way to learn reading and writing fast is through the use of a foreign language. This may be one of the reasons why the country adopted English as medium of instruction an all levels of the education ladder. In 1987, Policy on Bilingual Education was first introduced by then Department of Education, Culture and Sports. This was followed by the implementation of the Lingua Franca Education Project which gave then 16 regions to choose from the three widely spoken languages – Tagalog, Ilocano and Cebuano (Morada, 2009). The Philippines is lagging behind Asian countries in terms of education. This is due to same factors, which include lack of instructional materials and devices which greatly affect the quality of education. It has been the objective of the government particularly the Department of Education (DepEd) to improve the quality
of education in the Philippines. It is understood that the quality of educational system, the educational program, and effectiveness of any teaching is gauged by the input, the way the teacher performs, the process of teaching, the output and the quality of pupils achievement. Leysa further revealed that taking these into consideration, national and international researches have been conducted and studies have been made to trace the ground of mediocrity. A study made by the Summer Institute of Linguistics has found that although good teachers play an important part in good early education, the use of the mother tongue has been proven effective in making the students‘ understand the lesson better. It says that vital to good early education is a mother tongue teaching and development of reading skills to enable students to have strong knowledge in English, Science and Math. Way back in 1950s, UNESCO made the recommendation, base on the experience of many countries that the best medium of instruction with which to begin primary education is the mother tongue. Recent studies also prove that students learn to read and write more quickly when initially taught in a language they already understand. The mother tongue or lingua franca (the common language used by a region) is used as the soul of instruction during the first three grades of elementary schools. In fourth grade, students start to use Filipino to all subjects except English, Math and Science for which English is used the order extends the use of the mother tongue beyond the first three years of elementary schools
According to DepEd Secretary Lapus (2009), the findings of various local initiatives and international studies in basic education have validated the superiority of these of the learners‘ first language in improving learning outcomes and promoting Education for all. Thus, the researchers come up with the study of determining the Effectiveness Of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual in Balucuc Elementary School. Background of the Study Over the years, attempts to raise students‘ proficiency in the English language have never been achieved, much more in their propensity in Science and Math. DepEd data indicated dismal performance of students despite innumerable measures and interventions carried out by the department to improve learning outcomes. Results of the National Achievement Tests show how inadequate the pupils are exceedingly alarming. In 2004, the Trends in International Math and Science conducted in 28 countries placed the Philippines second from the bottom. In a high school proficiency examination conducted in 45 countries, Philippines ranked 41st. And on elementary proficiency, out of 25 countries tested, this country placed 23rd. (Leysa, 2009). By the bilingual educational policy adopted in 1974.,Filipino is the medium of instruction in school for all subjects except natural science and Mathematics for which English is used. There is, however, a reported move to replace English with Filipino for teaching the two subjects, whereby English will be relegated to a foreign language in the curriculum. The possible adoption of this scheme has intensified the
controversy over Filipino, not only as medium of instruction but also as the national language. This is the situation as of 1994. The idea of a mother language is purely cultural a way of making our identity. A mother language can be powerful, which I why government sometimes try to suppress, even eradicate, the use of minority languages, which is often done because of the notion that the national identity depends o the having only one language throughout the country. The Department of Education (DepEd) will use 12 major local dialects as medium of instruction in the coming school year to develop wellrounded and life-long learners under K to 12 education program. These are Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Hiligaynon, Cebuano, Waray, Tausug, Maguindanao, Maranao and Chavacano. Multilingual Education seeks to specifically address the high functional illiteracy for Filipinos where language plays a significant factor. Based on the 2003 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS), out of 57.59 million Filipinos aged 10 to 64 years old, there were: 5.24 million Filipinos who could not read and write; 7.83 million Filipinos who could not read, write, and compute; 18.37 million Filipinos who could not read, write, compute and comprehend. Inability to read and understand largely explains poor performance, low retention, and low learning outcomes in the high schools. For instance, from 2004 to 2006, the performance of 4th year high school students have remained stagnant at 44% with marginal gains in science and mathematics and a drop of two percentage points for English. (Maligalig and Albert, p.33).
Study made by the Summer Institute of Linguistics has found that although good teachers play an important past in good early education, the use of the mother tongue has been proven effective in making the students‘ understand the lesson better. The above statement made the researcher decide to determine the Effectiveness of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education in Balucuc Elementary School. Theoretical Framework Cummins (1984) formulated an ‘interdependence hypothesis,’ asserting that second language competence depends upon the level of development of L1. Cummins distinguished between two kinds of language mastery: ‘interpersonal communication’ refers to oral communication skills that are used in everyday situations, while ‘cognitive academic language proficiency’ (CALP) is achieved when the speaker can use language in decontextualized ways, including writing, permitting the use of the language as a cognitive tool. Cummins argues that if learners have achieved CALP in L1, this competence can be transferred to L2, permitting them to participate successfully in academic learning in L2. If, however, learners have not achieved CALP in L1, both academic learning and second language learning are adversely affected. Cummins recommends beginning general academic instruction in the child‘s mother tongue until the child has become highly competent (i.e., has achieved CALP) in L1. According to Noam Chomsky, the mechanism of language acquisition formulates from innate processes. This theory is evidenced by children who live in 5
the same linguistic community without a plethora of different experiences who arrive at comparable grammars. Chomsky thus proposes that "all children share the same internal constraints which characterize narrowly the grammar they are going to construct." (Chomsky, 1977, p.98) Since we live in a biological world, "there is no reason for supposing the mental world to be an exception." (Chomsky, 1977, p.94) And he believes that there is a critical age for learning a language as is true for the overall development of the human body.
1. General Profile: Respondents‘ profile such as:
Gender Age Civil status Position held Highest educational attainment Teaching Experience Religion Respondents assess the Effectiveness of MTBMLE in Balucuc Elementary School in such aspects of: Academic Performance Teaching and Learning Study Habits Retention and Application Comprehension Level Community Relationship Proficiency
The respondents‘ assessment on the effectiveness of MTBMLE.
Survey through questionnaires
To strengthen the implementation of mother tongue based-multilingual education.
To propose solutions on the common problems encountered by the teachers.
To create an instructional material (big book) that will help the school.
Theorist Jim Cummins BICS and CALP Noam Chomsky Mechanism of Language Jean Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development
Effectiveness of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education in Balucuc Elementary School: an Assessment Based on Grade 1-3 Public Teachers
Figure 1 Paradigm of the Study 7
This research was made to find out the effectiveness of MTB-MLE as assessed by the Teachers of Balucuc Elementary School. The realization of the study was made possible through the Conceptual Framework. The Inputs are the General Profile of the respondents such as gender, age, civil status, and position held, highest educational attainment, teaching experience, and religion and the respondents assess the Effectiveness of MTB-MLE in Balucuc Elementary School in such aspects of: academic performance, teaching and learning, study habits, retention and application, comprehension level, community relationship, and proficiency. The study is based and followed mainly the Basic Interpersonal Communication
Proficiency(CALP) byDr. Jim Cummins,The Mechanism of Language by Noam Chomsky and Theory of Cognitive Development by Jean Piaget. In the process, there was survey questionnaire intended for the teachers. This would be at great aid to the searchers to gather necessary information for the study. Interviews were also conducted, and statistical treatment were involved and needed to have a clear analysis and interpretation of data. Library researches were done also. The output includes results such as the assessment of the teachers on the effectiveness of MTB-MLE and to strengthen the implementation of Mother Tongue Based- Multilingual Education. It also includes the propose solutions on the common problems encountered by the teachers and a proposed material (big book) that will help the school. 8
Scope and Limitations This research will focus on the Effectiveness of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education in Balucuc Elementary School. The target number will be 100 percent or 14 of the total no. of teachers in the said school. The coverage of this study was only for the teachers of Balucuc Elementary School, Academic Year 2012-2013 and their assessment on Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education. Significance of the Study The researcher has high hopes findings of this study will be used by and shall benefit the different person‘s included in the educational process. Students – In this study, the result may directly benefit the students. Mother tongue encourages a child to express himself easily and active participation because they understand what is being discussed. Faculty – Mother tongue can empower the Faculty as well, the teachers can more accurately assess what has been learned. Faculty can reflect and see if they are using the appropriate language and technique in teaching basic education and to maintain their ability in the art of teaching Administrative Officials – The result of this study may help the administrative officials in the assessment and re-evaluation of what happening in the classroom. Especially, the administrators would be guided to examine the existing policies and practices, identifying which of these (policies and practices) have to be retained, improved or strengthened and to involved reasons for such actions, furthermore, the result of this study would enable the administration to evolve styles and approaches that can be used to attain the desired efficient practices and vision in the development of the high mode among the teachers.
DepEd– The result of this study may help the DepEd strengthened the implementation of mother tongue as a medium of instruction in grade 1 to grade 3. Government – The result of this study may help the government as source of recent study to pursue the mother tongue as effective medium of instruction. Future Researchers – The result of this study will personally benefit the researcher. The researcher will be made fully aware of the importance of mother tongue based multilingual language as effective medium of instruction. Statement of the Problem The study aimed to assess the implementation of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education on the Guidelines of DepEd in the Selected Public Elementary School. Specifically, it attempted to answer the following research programs. 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1
2. What is the assessment of the teachers with regards to the implementation of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education in terms of the following areas: 2.1
Areas of Focus
Teaching and Learning Process
Teacher‘s Training and Development
Preparation of Learning Resources 10
3. Is there significant difference between the assessments of the teachers to the implementation of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education? Assumption The researcher assumed that Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education is effective in Balucuc Elementary School. Definition of Terms Academic Performance -- Used to describe performance done in schools, colleges, and universities, especially work which involves studying and reasoning rather than practical or technical skills. -- Performance done by the students of Balucuc Elementary School. Acquisition -- Process of learning or developing it. -- Process of achieving mastery of a language or a linguistic rule or element BICS -- Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills -- The day to day language needed to interact socially with other people. Language skills needed in social situations.
CALP -- Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency -- Survey questionnaire intended for the teachers by Dr. Jim Cummins. Cognitive -- Thinking, remembering, learning or using language. -- Learning development of the learners. DepEd
-- Department of Education -- Sources of information and guide in implementing MTB-MLE. Eradicate -- Means to get rid of it completely -- Destroy the minority language Effectiveness -- Works well and produces the results that were intended -- Of mother tongue based multilingual education under different aspects such as academic performance, teaching and learning, study habits, retention and application, comprehension level, community relationship, and proficiency. Impressive --Arousing admiration --Admirable documents Illiteracy -- State of not knowing how to read or write. -- Of Filipinos and the high drop-out and non-completion rates of students. Implement -- Something such as a plan, you ensure that what has been planned is done. -- Pertains to Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Language.
Institutionalize -- Means of establishing as part of a culture, social system or organization. -- Established Mother Tongue Based-Multilingual Edcuation Language -- System of communication which consists of a set of sounds and written symbols which are used by the people of a particular country or region for talking or writing. -- Words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation 12
First Language -- The language that they learned first and speak best. -- Filipino or Tagalog used to be the first language of the Philippines. Native language -- Regional language. -- Kapampanganas the mother tongue in Pampanga. Second language -- Language which is not their native language but which they use at work or at school. -- Tagalog Lingua Franca --Common language -- Language or way of communicating which is used between people who do not speak another native language. Linguistic -- Study of human speech including the units, native, structure, and modification of language. -- Way in which language works Mediocrity -- Moderate or low quality. -- Accomplishment
Mother Tongue -- Native language, first language -- Language that you learn from your parents when you are a baby. Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education -- Program of DepEd -- Fundamental educational policy.
Proficiency -- Master, expert -- Well advanced in an art, occupation or branch of knowledge Teachers -- Person who teaches, usually as a job at a school or similar institution. -- Pertains to the person teach in Balucuc Elementary School.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies that give relevant information helped the researcher in establishing the justification and additional insights to the study under consideration. These related literature and studies are grouped into two namely: Foreign and Local. Foreign Literature According to June Jordan "You will never teach a child a new language by scoring and ridiculing and forcibly erasing his first language." At the beginning of education, mother tongue instruction is very important not only to develop a strong educational foundation, but also to strengthen the cognitive development of learners. Lev Vygotsky‘stheory of Cognitive Development focuses heavily on language and social interaction, and the role they play in helping learners acquire an understanding of the culture in which they live. Language is a tool people use for cultural transmission, communication, and reflection on their own thinking.Teachers are encouraged to engage students in meaningful learning tasks that involve language and social interaction. Learners who can benefit from assistance are in what Vygotsky calls the zone of proximal development. Learners within this zone can profit from instructional scaffolding in the form of modeling, questions, prompts, and cues. Skutnabb-Tangas and Toukomaa (1976) proposed the ‘threshold level hypothesis’, which posits that only when children have reached a threshold of competence in their first language can they successfully learn a second language without losing competence in both languages. Further, only when a child has crossed 15
a second threshold of competence in both languages will the child‘s bilingualism positively affect intellectual development, a state which they called ‗additive bilingualism.‘ Nicholas and Lightbown (2008) explain that the pace of learning an additional language, and effective instruction or support for children to learn an additional language, will depend upon whether the child is has developed literacy in L1. Literacy entails the development of metalinguistic awareness, including the knowledge that the pronunciation of words is related to the written form (for most languages), and that there are ‗right‘ and ‗wrong‘ ways to say things. (August & Shanahan, 2006). If children are made to operate in the classroom in a poorly developed second language, the quality and quantity of what they learn from
curriculum materials and produce in oral and written form may be relatively weak and impoverished. (Baker,1996, p. 148) The effective domain, involving confidence, self-esteem and identity, is strengthened by use of the first language (L1), increasing motivation and initiative as well as creativity. L1 classrooms allow children to be themselves and develop their personalities as well as their intellects, unlike submersion classrooms where they are forced to sit silently or repeat mechanically, leading to frustration and ultimately repetition, failure and dropout. (Carol Benson 2004). Language acquisition has been based primarily on studies of monolingual acquisition, resulting in more theory than empirical evidence. However, scholars
agree broadly that children, including most children with specific learning impairments or low general intelligence, have the capacity to learn more than one language (Genesee, 2002.) The L1 allows children to express their full range of knowledge and experience and demonstrate their competence, which pedagogical approaches like those of Piaget and Vygotsky would support as productive for learning. (Richardson, 2001). Local Literature The Philippines is a multilingual and multicultural nation with more than 150 languages. A national language is a powerful resource for inter-ethnic dialogue, political unity, and national identity. To communicate throughout the nation, Filipinos use the national Lingua Franca called Filipino, also known as Tagalog and Pilipino. They speak it as an L2, and not as an L1. Because languages in the Philippines have similar features, values, and concepts, non-native speakers of Tagalog learn Filipino faster, rather than English. (A Primer on MLE, Nolasco, pg5) Castillo (1999) echoes the importance of multilingual education beginning with the first language. She notes studies in the USA and Canada have shown that, when
along with appropriate second
language instruction, then students can achieve academically at higher levels that if they had been taught in the second language only. Dr. Ricardo Ma. Duran Nolasco, a linguistics professor from UP, cites the high functional illiteracy of Filipinos and the high drop-out and non-completion rates 17
of students as the problems the mother tongue-based MLE seeks to address. On July 14, 2009, in what The Philippine Star columnist Isagani Cruz hailed as ―one of the most significant and far-reaching contributions of (then DepEd) Secretary JesliLapus to the history of Philippine education,‖the DepEd issued Order No. 74 series of 2009, entitled ―Institutionalizing Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MLE).‖ DepEd Order No. 74 institutionalizes Mother Tongue-Based MLE—that is, the use of more than two languages for literacy and instruction—as a fundamental policy and program in the whole stretch of formal education, including preschool. Under this framework, the learner‘s first language (L1) will be used as the primary medium of instruction from preschool to at least Grade 3, and as the main vehicle to teach understanding and mastery of all subject areas like Math, Science, Makabayan, and language subjects like Filipino and English. Sibayan (1967) suggests that the Filipino people have had to face the language problem at practically every stage in their history. Spanish colonization from 1521 until 1898 and the period of American rule from 1900 until the establishment of the Philippine Republic in 1946 have both had an impact upon language use in all walks of life, but perhaps none more than in the area of education. Sibayan (1985) notes that some of the problems of bilingual education among the linguistic minorities in the Philippines are related to the lack of materials in the language. The Council for the Welfare of Children Report (1999) states that schools must change to serve the Filipino child - locally-developed learning materials using vernacular language is suggested in order to maintain pupil's interest in the
curriculum. This would serve to build the child's perception of the value of their language and increase their self-esteem and promote continuing involvement in the education process. Baguingan (1999) highlights the significant financial resources investment and teacher training required to prepare instructional materials for the many languages of the Philippines. The researcher has been to Department of Education and given the chance to talk to the Special Education Unit Supervisor, Ms.Arsenia C. Lara. She gave us some information about how they implemented the mother tongue considering various reasons based to recent studies stated above. Inspired with the information and experience, the researchers have conceptualized to pursue the study about the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education to enhance learning. Dr. Ricardo Ma. Nolasco of the UP Department of Linguistics noted that two out of three Filipinos, between the ages 10-64, do not understand what they are reading, based on the 2003 FLEMMS survey. According to the 2008-2009 results of the national career assessment examination (NCAE), the reading comprehension and verbal abilities of 4th year high school students are at a low 49.1 and 43.0 respectively for the public schools, and 57.9 and 52.1 for the private schools. Foreign Studies Many people believe that children have finished learning their first language by the time they go to school. However, current research indicates that at least 12 years are necessary to learn one's first language. In fact, adults are still learning aspects of language all their lives-vocabulary, the social aspects of language,
decontextualized language, and pragmatic skills (Collier 1989 citing McLaughlin 1984). Prodromou carried out research into the perceptions of 300 Greek students regarding L1 use in the monolingual classroom at three levels – beginner, intermediate and advanced. A relatively high percentage of beginner and intermediate students (between 53% and 66%) answered that both the teacher and the students should use the mother tongue, while only a minority of advanced learners supported those views. This contrasts with the students opinions concerning the use of L1 in specific classroom situations (i.e. giving instructions, explaining grammar and so on). Here L1 use receives a small amount of support from the different level groups. Prodromou concludes that his study presents a clear pattern; the more English students learn, the less reliant they are on the L1 and that, on the whole, his students seem to have a negative opinion of L1 use in the classroom. (Prodromou, 2002). A study of 17,000 British theory stands up to children learning French in a school context indicated that, after five years practice of exposure, children who had begun French instruction at age 11 performed better on tests of second language proficiency than children who had begun at eight years of age (Stem, Burstall, and Harley 1975 cited in McLaughlin 1992). A study of English-speaking children in Canada in late-immersion programs (in which the second language is introduced in grades seven or eight) have been found to perform just as well or better on tests of French language proficiency as children who began their immersion experience in kindergarten or grade one (Genesee 1987). (See Part II for a description of the Canadian early-immersion program.) 20
The 1991 Ramirez et al. report in the United States indicates that Latino students who received sustained instruction in their home language fared academically better than those who studied under an all-English program. The 1997 Thomas and Collier‘s study confirms these findings. Non-English speaking children in America who received a full six years of L1 education before being mainstreamed into an all-English curriculum were found to score above the national norms, at the 54th percentile. Those receiving one to three years of L1 instruction or no L1 support at all finished on the average between the 11th and 33rd percentile.
In Mozambique began following a conference on how to reduce the high repetition, failure and dropout rates plaguing basic education. This was also a principal motivation in the well-documented Six-Year Primary Project in Nigeria whose results clearly supported long-term mother tongue development. Some countries have followed up on the successes of models and materials for use in formal schooling, which Cambodia has just begun doing in several languages of the eastern highlands. (Thomas, 2003) The Six-Year Medium Primary Project demonstrated unequivocally that a full six-year primary education in the mother tongue with the L2 taught as a subject was not only viable but gave better results that all-English schooling. It also suggested that teachers should be allowed to specialize in L2 instruction. (Fafunwa et al 1975)
There is growing evidence from across Africa, Latin America and Asia that mother tongue based multilingual education is the most appropriate solution for children who do not use national or international languages in their home life
(Benson, 2006). Children build up a strong conceptual picture of the world and academic concepts through a language they understand first, and later on transfer that to a second or third language. There is clear evidence that good quality MTB-MLE works, resulting in substantial efficiency savings to the education system and leading to better learning competencies and proficiency in both second languages and local language (Webley et al, 2006). In 2006, the Association for Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) published a review of research on the use of African languages in the education of African children (Alidou, Boly, Brock-Utne, Diallo, Heugh, and Wolff, 2006). In an early chapter, the following assertion is made: continued maintenance of the mother tongue (or a national language) medium of instruction plus the teaching of the official and other foreign languages by skilled teachers will secure quality education, in Africa as much as in the so-called developed countries (p. 37; emphasis added). Researchers now consider that learning a second language requires learning two different kinds of skills: (1) social communication skills; and (2) academic language skills. To learn the first, requires only one or two years; to master the second, at the level approaching grade norms, requires from five to seven years (Cummins 1984). Local Studies Now everyone will agree that we need greater competence in English to be competitive in a globalized world. But educators or those who have done education research will disagree that using English as the medium of instruction will accomplish that goal. As a matter of fact, they point out that research findings are unequivocal, 22
that to achieve greater mastery in English or Filipino, the most effective medium of instruction is in the child's mother tongue that is her first language or the language spoken at home. Studies in country after country bear this out. Teaching in an official school language that is not the mother tongue is a major barrier in the child's learning. In the Philippines, the experiment was conducted in Kalinga, where teachers use Kalinga to teach children from Grades 1 to 3 to read and write. It is also the medium of instruction for teaching other subjects, including Filipino and English. Out of the 10 districts in the Kalinga division, the Lubuagan district topped the 2006 national achievement test Grade 3 reading test for both English and Filipino, with mean scores of 76.55% and 76.45 respectively, which indicates mastery. The Tinglayan district came in a far second registered only 63.89% and 53.58%. ("Analysis by WinnieMonsod", 2009).LubuaganKalinga First Language Experiment was conducted with three experimental class schools implementing MLE and another three control class schools implementing bilingual education scheme. Already in its tenth year, the project is being carried out by the Summer Institute of Linguistics-Philippines, the Department of Education and the local community of Lubuagan, Kalinga province. The over-all results of the test show the experimental class scored nearly 80 percent mastery of the curriculum, while the control class scored just over 50 percent mastery. The results provide crucial evidence that mother tongue instruction strengthens the learning of English and Filipino and does not hinder the learning of content, contrary to the fears and concerns of many parents and educators.
Summary Results of Grades 1, 2 and 3 Tests By Subjects in Lubuagan, SY 2007-2008 Grade 1
In addition, there is impressive evidence in other developing countries showing the efficacy of L1. A 2005 World Bank Report revealed that in Mali, between 1994 and 2000, end-of primary children who began their schooling in the mother tongue scored 32% higher in French tests than children who underwent French-only programs. (Walter, Dekker and Duguiang). A DepEd study in the Mimaropa region (Region IV-B) validated the observation that top performing countries in Mathematics and Science were those that taught and tested students in Math and Science in their own language. (The Mimaropa region is composed of the provinces of Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon, and Palawan.) The preponderance of local and international research consistent with the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) recommendations affirms the benefits and relevance of MLE. Notable empirical studies like the Lingua Franca Project and Lubuagan First Language Component show that:
First, learners learn to read more quickly when in their first language
Second, pupils who have learned to read and write in their first
language learn to speak, read, and write in a second language (L2) and third language (L3) more quickly than those who are taught in a second or third language first; and c.
Third, in terms of cognitive development and its effects in other
academic areas, pupils taught to read and write in their first language acquire such competencies more quickly. The primer is entitled "21 Reasons Why Children Learn Better While Using Their Mother Tongue." It is written by RICARDO MA. DURAN NOLASCO, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics, UP Diliman.Below is a glimpse of the primer: 1. What is mother tongue-based multilingual education or MLE? MLE is the use of more than two languages for literacy and instruction. It starts from where the learners are, and from what they already know. This means learning to read and write in their first language or L1, and also teaching subjects like mathematics, science, health and social studies in the L1. 2. When will children start learning Filipino and English? As they develop a strong foundation in their L1, children are gradually introduced to the official languages, Filipino and English, as separate subjects, first orally, then in the written form. 25
3. Does MLE only involve changing the language of instruction and translating the materials into the local languages? MLE is an innovative approach to learning. Apart from programming the use of several languages, it also involves the following: (a) the development of good curricula (i.e. cognitively demanding); (b) the training of good teachers in the required languages for content and methodology; (c) the production of good teaching materials (i.e., error-free and culturally relevant); (d) the empowerment of the community (i.e. school-based management). MLE will not work when one simply changes the language by translating existing materials into the local languages. 4. What kind of learners does MLE intend to produce? MLE aims to produce learners who are: • Multi-literate—they can read and write competently in the local language, the national language, and one or more languages of wider communication, such as English; • Multi-lingual—they can use these languages in various situations; • Multi-cultural—they can live and work harmoniously with people of culture backgrounds that are different from their own. 5. What specific weaknesses in the Philippine educational system does MLE seek to address? MLE seeks to specifically address the high functional illiteracy of Filipinos where language plays a significant factor. 26
As one educator, Professor Josefina Cortes, has observed, we have become ―a nation of fifth graders.‖ 6. Why use the mother tongue or the first language (L1) in school? One‘s own language enables a child to express him/herself easily, as there is no fear of making mistakes. MLE encourages active participation by children in the learning process because they understand what is being discussed and what is being asked of them. They can immediately use the L1 to construct and explain their world, articulate their thoughts and add new concepts to what they already know. 7. But our children already know their language. Why still learn it in school? What we and our children know is the conversational language or the everyday variety used for daily interaction. Success in school depends on the academic and intellectualized language needed to discuss more abstract concepts. 8. Why use the national language or Filipino in school? The Philippines is a multilingual and multicultural nation with more than 150 languages. A national language is a powerful resource for inter-ethnic dialogue, political unity, and national identity. 9. Will the use of Filipino as medium of instruction and as a subject be advantageous to native Tagalog speakers? It is partially true that native speakers of Tagalog enjoy a small advantage under the present bilingual education set-up in which some subjects are taught in their
L1. But this is nothing compared to the overwhelming bias of the present system for English. 10. Will the use of the local and regional languages be detrimental to building one nation? No, it won‘t. On the contrary, it is the suppression of local languages that may lead to violent conflicts, disunity, and dissension. 11. Why use an international language like English in school? Languages of wider communication like English should be part of the multilingual curriculum of a country. The graduates of this system should find relevance beyond their ethnic and national boundaries. Most world knowledge is accessible in English, and so, knowledge of English is certainly useful. It is not true, however, that students will not learn science and mathematics if they do not know English. The ideas of science are not bound by one language and one culture. 12. Will using the mother tongue as language of instruction hinder the learning of a second language like English? No. Many studies indicate that students first taught to read in their L1, and then later in an L2, outperform those taught to read exclusively in an L2. Learning to read in one‘s own language provides learners with a solid foundation for learning to read in any L2. 13. Will increasing the time for English or making it the exclusive medium of instruction improve our English? 28
No. This popular belief is increasingly being proven untrue. Large scale research during the last 30 years has provided compelling evidence that the critical variable in L2 development in children is not the amount of exposure, but the timing and the manner of exposure. 14. What is the best way to attain proficiency in English? For non-native speakers of English, the best way is to teach it as an L2 and to teach it well. This depends on the proficiency of teachers, the availability of adequate models of the language in the learner‘s social environment, and sufficient reading materials. Simply increasing the time for English will not work. 15. Are local languages capable of being used as languages of instruction? Definitely ―yes.‖ As far back as 1925, during the American colonial period, the Monroe Commission already recommended the use of the local languages in education. Beginning 1957, the local languages, or vernaculars, became the medium of instruction in Grades 1 and 2. This vernacular education policy was abruptly abolished in 1974, when the bilingual education policy was launched by the Marcos government. Languages grow and change in response to changes in the physical, social, political, spiritual and economic environments in which they are used. As a language is used for instruction, for example, it intrinsically evolves to adapt to the demands of its users.
16. Why not use an early exit program where the L1 is used from pre-school up to Grade 3 and English is used as the exclusive medium of instruction thereafter? Early-exit programs can help but may not be enough. The international experience on the use of L1 and L2 in education, especially in Africa, reveals that children need at least 12 years to learn their L1. It takes six to eight years of strong L2 teaching before this can be successfully used as a medium of instruction. The consolidated Gullas, Villafuerte and Del Mar Bill (or the ―English-only‖ MOI Bill) pending in Congress appears to support the use of the local languages and also the national language in education, as it provides that ―English, Filipino or the regional native language may be used as the MOI in all subjects from preschool until Grade III.‖ However, the Declaration of Policy section betrays the Bill‘s real intention and this is to strengthen English ―as the medium of instruction in all levels of education, from the preschool to the tertiary level.‖ The optional use of L1 and the national language as MOI really means that they may not be used at all. 17. Don‘t we need more English since the language will provide more jobs for our countrymen, such as in the call center industry? Many believe that this is an extremely short sighted view because not all Filipinos will become call center agents. The more important concern is how to solve the current mismatch between industry and the educational system. According to former Education Undersecretary Miguel Luz, the consensus among employers is that a high school diploma with its current coverage is inadequate for its purposes because Filipino high school graduates are weak in their ability to communicate, to think
logically, and to solve problems. Luz adds: ―It (the Gullas Bill) is a dangerous bill, however, because it places a misleading emphasis on English as the medium of learning. As such, the young learners and their teachers will concentrate on the language, not on Science and Math and literacy (that is more fundamental to learning).‖ The best way to learn basic science and math, problem solving skills, and reasoning skills is through the L1. 18. What is a better alternative to the English-only Bill? A better alternative is House Bill No. 3719, filed by Congressman MagtanggolGunigundo II of Valenzuela. The Bill is also known as the Multilingual Education and Literacy Bill, or the Gunigundo Bill, which is far superior to the English-only Bill in many respects. 19. Is it costly to practice MLE? Contrary to popular belief, L1-based education may actually cost less than a system that is based on L2. If we consider the money wasted on drop-outs, repeaters, and failures, as well as other added costs, studies show that L2-based education systems are more costly than L1 systems. 20. What do Philippine stakeholders say about MLE? • The Department of Education, through Secretary JesliLapus: ―We find the bill (the Gunigundo bill) to be consistent with the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) recommendations and the bridging model proposed by the Bureau of
Elementary Education where pupils were found to comprehend better the lessons in class.‖ • The National Economic Development Authority, through NEDA Director General Ralph Recto: ―From the economic and financial vantage points, we believe that adopting this education policy (HB 3719), in the final analysis, is cost-effective... • The Philippine Business for Education (PBED), one of the largest associations of businessmen in the country: ―English and Filipino are languages `foreign‘ to most children and legislating either as medium of instruction will do more harm to an already ailing system of education.‖ • The Department of Foreign Affairs and UNESCO Philippines, through Secretary Alberto Romulo: ―Multilingualism is the order of things in the UN and in the world. The unique richness of the world‘s national identities draws on the many traditions that make up different countries and are expressed through local and indigenous languages. UNESCO supports mother tongue instruction as a means of improving educational quality by building upon the knowledge and experience of the learners and teachers.‖ 21. Do we have to wait for legislation to implement MLE? No. The Lubuagan experience, the DepEd Lingua Franca Project, and other existing programs using the local languages tell us that it is already possible to undertake an MLE program without waiting for legislation.
Chapter III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methods of study used; the research utilizes to obtain the needed data and information including its preparation, validation and administration on the respondents, other research techniques employed and the statistical treatment applied to the data. Method of Research Used In this chapter, they will see the brief explanation based on the methods of research writing. The methods of research generally categorized as descriptive, historical, and experimental. It will also provide corresponding explanation to the process on methods that has been used like research design, research instrument, and the statistical treatment that has been used. Research Design The study adopted the descriptive method that assessed the effectiveness of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education in Balucuc Elementary School from the different aspect of academic performance, teaching and learning, study habits, retention and application, comprehension level, community relationship, and proficiency. The study utilized the descriptive method of research as the most appropriate method in conducting the investigation. The method was deemed most appropriate in the light of the objective nature and scope of the study.
Description of the Respondents The study involved Public Grade School Teachers who are currently employed in Balucuc Elementary School Academic Year 2012-2013. The proponents used 100% total numbers of teachers, with the overall total of 26 respondents. Research Instrument Questionnaire – A prepared set of questions design to operate data necessary for accomplishing the objectives of the research project. It will be the primary instrument of the researcher to have the data. The questionnaire consisted of the following: The General Profile of the respondents such as name, gender, age, civil status, position held highest educational attainment, teaching experience, and religion. The second part isthe problems encountered by the teachers. The third part is effectiveness of mother tongue based multilingual education under different aspects such as academic performance, teaching and learning, study habits, retention and application, comprehension level, community relationship, and proficiency.
The weighted average had the following interpretation. Score
Very Satisfactory Attained
Procedures in Gathering Data A letter of request to conduct a study addressed to the school administration was submitted after it was approved, another request letter to the respondents were attached to the questionnaire asking for their cooperation about the study to be undertaken. The questionnaire was distributed during school year 2012-2013. The researchers personally collected the data from the respondents. The data gathered were compiled and was strictly scrutinized for accuracy, computation and analysis for later tabulation. Statistical Treatment of Data The following descriptive and inferential statistical tools are used in the treatment of the data for analyzing and interpretation. Descriptive Statistics a. Percentage – this was used to provide relative distribution of the respondent‘s according to some variables; the formula for obtaining the percentage (p) is; Where in: P = percentage F = Frequency of the respondent‘s N = total number of the respondent‘s
X = fx n 35
b. Weighted Mean – this was used to compute the average values of the observation Where in; F = frequency x = corresponding rank of the verbal interpretation n = total number of the respondent‘s
∑ = fx N The weighted average had the following interpretation; Rating Scale
4.50 – 5.0
3.50 – 4.49
Very Satisfactory Attained
2.50 – 3.49
2.50 – 2.49
1.0 - 1.49
Z-Test To determine if there is a significant difference between proportions of two variables, the z-test will be used.
P1 – P2
p1q1 + p2q2 n1 n2 Where: P1 = Proportion of first sample P2 = Proportion of second sample
q1 = 1- p1 q2 = 1- p2 n1 = number of cases in the first sample n1 = number of cases in the second sample