Soal Pemeliharaan Mesin Sepeda Motor Kelas XI Ts1Deskripsi lengkap
TS-1: FOUNDATION COURSE IN TOURISM (TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT) Course Code: TS-1
Total Marks: 100
Assignment Code: TS-1/TMA/2017
Note: Answer any five questions in about 600 words each. All questions carry equal marks. Send your TMA to the Coordinator of your Study Centre.
1. Define tourism. Explain the different types of tourism.
2. What are the primary constituents of the tourism industry? Discuss the role of government organizations in promotion of tourism at national and state level. 20 3. Discuss the major difference between the formal and informal sector in tourism. 4. Write short notes on:
20 10 × 2=20
(a) Alternative Tourism (b) Manila Declaration 5. Discuss the role of rail transport in the promotion of domestic tourism in India. 20 6. What is the difference between a guide and an escort? Discuss the role of a guide and an escort during a tour. 20 7. Explain the socio- cultural and environmental impacts of tourism.
8. Define a tour operator. Discuss the steps involved in the planning and costing of a tour. 20 9. Define marketing. Discuss the importance of promotion in marketing.
10. Mention the relationship between infrastructure and tourism. What are the areas of weakness of infrastructure in India? 20
Answers 1. Define tourism. Explain the different types of tourism. Ans.: Tourism is travel for pleasure; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". "Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries which deliver a travel experience comprising transportation, accommodation, eating and drinking establishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses and othe hospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling away from home" 1
Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance. There are different ways to measure the size of the tourism industry, as tourism does not conform to the usual ways that industries are defined, such as manufacturing, forestry and other industries. Tourism constitutes a wide variety of sectors that provide diverse products and services to visitors. However, these businesses also provide products and services to local residents. The tourism and hospitality industry in British Columbia employs 274,000 people on a full year equivalent basis, in diverse sectors such as transportation, travel services, recreation and entertainment, accommodation and food and beverage services. The industry represents approximately 12% of the total BC workforce. Of these 274,000 workers, approximately half (127,500) are employed directly as the result of the $14.6 billion in tourism revenue in the province each year. When describing the “tourism industry,” go2HR includes all 274,000 workers, because this is the number of people who need to be recruited and trained to support the businesses that serve both tourists and local residents. Economic reports may focus more on the 127,500 jobs created by direct tourism spending for different purposes. Both figures are correct.
Tourism is a dynamic and competitive industry that requires the ability to adapt constantly to customers' changing needs and desires, as the customer’s satisfaction, safety and enjoyment are particularly the focus of tourism businesses. Tourism Types: Outbound Tourism: Outbound tourism is what you may be most familiar with. It involves the people going from British Columbia to other provinces, territories or countries. For example, going to Hawaii for a holiday is considered outbound tourism. Inbound Tourism: The tourists coming to BC from other places are called inbound tourists. BC competes in a global market to attract tourists from the United States, Japan, Germany and many other countries. The industry also implements marketing campaigns aimed at attracting travellers from other parts of Canada, as well as from within British Columbia. Domestic Tourism: Approximately half of the tourists in BC each year are actually from within the province. BC Stats and Destination BC consider those travelling beyond their usual environment (typically more than 80 km from home) for business or for pleasure to be tourists.
2. What are the primary constituents of the tourism industry? Discuss the role of government organizations in promotion of tourism at national and state level. Ans.: Accommodation is one of the basic needs of any tourism activity. Travellers and tourists need lodging for rest, while they are on tour. Accommodation in the form of low 2
budget lodges/hotels to world class luxury hotels is available at all the major tourist destinations to provide a home away from home. These are establishments that provide a stay for the tourist i.e. lodging paid for the duration of the stay of the tourist. The Constituents of the tourism industry are varied ranging from small scale businesses operatingat local levels to multinationals.For e.g.: a fast foodcounter at an airport is a component of tourism industry, as is anairline or ahotel for it has its own serving purpose for the tourist.More over these different components are closely linked to each other. This linkage is thereinspiteof the competition within one set of constituents. The Constituents of the tourism industry are varied ranging from small scale businesses operatingat local levels to multinationals.For e.g.: a fast foodcounter at an airport is a component of tourism industry, as is anairline or ahotel for it has its own serving purpose for the tourist.More over these different components are closely linked to each other. This linkage is thereinspiteof the competition within one set of constituents knowledge, expertise & contacts with providers of services. He isauseful & invaluable intermediary between the traveler & the suppliers of the touristservices i.e. airlines, transport companies, hotels etc.The guide services play a vital role intourism as a tourist feels comfortablewhen the essence of culture is explained especially when it is done in his ownlanguage.5.Government departments/tourist information centers/tourist organizations: many national& international organizations related totourism form part of the tourism industry. Today there are a variety of services (formal & non formal) that constitute thetourism mix or are directly & indirectly related to tourism.For e.g.: banks don’t come under thetourism industry but they cater to tourist through travelers’ cheque or credit cards. Similarly, insurance companies offer short termsafety or accident policies to tourist.Following are such constituents: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Shops & entertainment. Handicrafts & souvenirs. Local taxi / transportation. Hawkers & coolies. Communication services at the destination. Advertisementagencies. Publishing industry which publishestravel guides,brochures, magazines, postcards etc. Artists, performers, musicians who entertain the tourist.
One of the main components of tourism, accessibility, refers to the ability for tourists to get to the destination. This mostly includes transportation, which needs to be regularly scheduled, economical, safe and comfortable. Depending on the destination, this includes cars and buses, boats and ships, trains and airplanes. The second component of tourism is accommodation. This means that tourists have a place to stay upon reaching the destination and a way to get food. Much like accessibility, 3
accommodation also needs to be economical, safe and comfortable. The type of accommodation also varies according to the location. For instance, a stay in the mountains may require a cabin or a place to pitch tents. Other accommodations include hotels and motels. The third and arguably most important component of tourism is attraction. This means that the destination needs to have some draw that makes tourists want to visit. In same cases the draw is scenic, like mountains and lakes. In other cases the draw might be historical relevance. 3. Discuss the major difference between the formal and informal sector in tourism. Ans.: The formal sector consists of the businesses, enterprises and economic activities that are monitored, protected and taxed by the government, whereas the informal sector is comprised of the workers and enterprises that are not under government regulation. British anthropologist Keith Hart coined the term "informal sector" in 1973 as part of a study on Ghana. There are many conflicting theories as to the role and benefits of the informal sector. In contrast to the formal sector, the laborers, businesses and activities that make up the informal sector are not registered with or taxed by the government. For this reason, scholars sometimes refer to the informal sector as the black market, shadow economy or underground economy. Originally, the term referred to self-employed small enterprises like street vending, sewing, artisanry and small farming. It now also includes wage-earning jobs like cropharvesting, cleaning and any other unprotected occupation. Academics and policy-makers view the informal sector with conflicting views. Some believe the informal sector fuels entrepreneurialism and provides a cushion during economic crises. Others argue that the informal sector undermines taxation and regulation and thereby weakens the overall economy. Globally, the informal sector is steadily growing. It constitutes the majority of the economy in both Latin America and Africa. This pattern is the result of governments' failure to plan for sufficient formal jobs in the face of expanding global communication and competition. The formal sector enterprises usually own or have the capacity to leaseone or more larger boats, or speedboats which can cover substantiallygreater distances than the longtail boats used by informal enterprises(Figure 2). Formal enterprises typically have part foreign ownership ormanagement. The owners and managers of formal enterprises oftenreturn to their home country during the off season. Formal enterprisestend to have a storefront and numerous agents that they market through,in addition to websites and international marketing networks and travel markets. The informal enterprises base their longtail boats at a range of populartourist beaches, primarily on Phuket’s west coast, and they rely largely onwalk -in customers. Some have small self-made signs advertising theirservices. The staff of the formal enterprises are mostly able tocommunicate in one or more international language (e.g. English,German, Japanese), whereas international language skills are limitedamong informal enterprises. The informal 4
entrepreneurs typicallyaugment their income during the low season through fishing, farming, or asecond job. However, evidence from nearby Khao Lak suggests that rapidtourism development can erode the availability of alternative incomesources as land available for agriculture reduces due to touristdevelopments and individuals become more reliant on their incomederived from tourism. Formal and informal enterprises differed in how they responded topast shocks and in the factors that they perceive enabled their enterprisesto survive past shocks. After the 2004 tsunami, the three most commonresponses by formal operators were cost-cutting and streamlining (54%),strengthened marketing (15%) and down-sizing or temporarily closingdown (13%). The top three responses by informal enterpriseswere down-sizing or temporarily closing down (39%), relying on a second job or subsistence food production (30%), and sourcing additional fundingthrough government support or a loan (17%) (Figure 3b). Formal andinformal enterprises differed in the factors that they perceived enabledtheir survival of the 2004 tsunami. The three most important survivalfactors reported by formal enterprises (n = 25) were commitment andhard work to maintain the lifestyle and enterprise (32%), the availability of past savings to draw on (12%) and the ability to cut costs (12%). Thethree most important survival factors reported by informal enterprises (n= 31) were commitment and hard work to maintain the lifestyle andenterprise (58%), government or NGO support through loans or othermeans (13%) and the ability to rely on a second source of income orsubsistence (10%). 4. Write short notes on:
10 × 2=20
(a) Alternative Tourism Ans.: Alternative tourism combines tourist products or individual tourist services, different from the mass tourism by means of supply, organization and the human resource involved. The term is often referred as "trendy" expression replacing other semantical terms such as "different" or "other tourism", "intelligent" or "motivated tourism", "anti-tourism" or "participative tourism" just to name few of them. Alternative tourism is when people tour things and places other than the usual tourist attractions. In this type of tourism, visitors often interact more with the locals rather than simply looking at big buildings or historical sites. The local cultures, families and communities are emphasized over mainstream tourism. There are three main categories of this type of tourism: nature-based tourism, cultural tourism and adventure tourism. All three categories could interconnect, depending on the specific desires and abilities of the tourist. This type of tourism is among the rarer forms of tourism. Many people desire the resort type of tourism, which is mainstreamed and often packaged in well-advertised bundles. Travelers typically will not ask for alternative tourism options when they are planning trips to other areas. The natural settings and everyday lives of the people who live in an area are what truly make up alternative touring, and the packages are easier to obtain because of their lower popularity.
Recognizing an alternative tourism package over a mainstream tourist opportunity simply involves reading the details of the trip. A company that offers golf tours in its alternative packages might have the wrong definition of this type of tourism. A true alternative touring package includes as few non-native elements as possible. After an alternative vacation, the vacationer should feel that he or she has experienced the true essence of the area, rather than seeing only the flashy, advertised eye-catchers. (b) Manila Declaration Ans.: The Manila Declaration on the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes (hereinafter Manila Declaration or Declaration) was approved by resolution 37/10 (under the item Peaceful settlement of disputes between States)1 by the United Nations General Assembly on 15 November 1982, on the basis of a text prepared by the Special Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role of the Organization at its 1980 session, held in Manila, the Philippines. The Declaration is the first important instrument of the work of the Special Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role of the Organization, and one of its significant achievements. This initiative of non-aligned countries might explain why the initial draft contained so many references to “equal rights and self -determination of peoples”, the “need for all States to desist from any forcible action which deprives peoples, particularly under colonial and racist regimes or other forms of alien domination, of their inalienable right to self-determination, freedom and independence” and the “right of these peoples to struggle to that end and to seek and r eceive support”. Such references, more strongly worded in the beginning, were softened in the process of negotiation that led to the adoption of the Declaration by the General Assembly by consensus. It is important to keep in mind that the context in which the Manila Declaration was negotiated and adopted was that of the difficult relations between the East and West, and of the intent of the non-aligned countries to seek clarification of existing international law in conjunction with their aspirations. 5. Discuss the role of rail transport in the promotion of domestic tourism in India. Ans.: Tourism is travel for various purposes like recreational, business, leisure or pleasure. World Tourism Organization headquartered at Madrid defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". In recent times tourism has been recognized as an important social and economic phenomenon. At the World Conference on Tourism held in Manila in 1980, the importance of tourism and its widespread effects were recognized in the Manila Declaration on World Tourism, which stated, "Tourism is considered an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations". In India, Railways play a vital role in the socio-economic life of the country. Today, the number of domestic as well as international travelers is increasing with an increase in the disposable income of Indians. To support the increasing traffic of travelers even Indian Railways have come out with few plans over last 10-15 years. They are trying to build their 6
tourism wing as well but still travelers are not aware of the various initiatives taken by Indian Railways. Indian Railways have a totally new wing to handle this i.e. Indian Railways Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC). The first objective of the project is to bring awareness by designing the marketing plan for them. This will be used all over the country to promote rail tourism. The other objective of the project is to find the feasibility of new route which they can venture into. This would require both financial and operational strategy. The final deliverable for the MRR would be a combination of both the strategies mentioned above for Indian Railways to showcase the marketing plan and advantages and risk for investing in the new routes. In every tourism industry, railway networks play very important roles. Trains are fast, efficient and spacious, unlike aircraft and coaches. These can take large numbers of people in one trip. These can be managed with the help of a large number of people and that is why, employment levels are high in railway systems of the world. But the only condition is that such places should be connected to one another through rail tracks. With the advent of electric railway systems in India, journey through her various parts (and remote areas) has become comfortable. In our country, aircraft cannot land at or fly from all the important tourist spots (due to the limitations of terrain and lack of air bases). Further, the government does not allow aerodromes or airstrips to be constructed at all the places of tourist interest due to reasons related ‘to internal security and defence. Hence in such areas, Indian as well as foreign tourists ought to use trains. The thrill of travel by train cannot be explained in words. Even the rich families of India travel by trains. The romance of travel by trains has fascinated foreign tourists too. They are frequently using services of Palace on Wheels, Eastern Railway (Darjeeling), Northern Railway (KalkaShimla) and The Fairy Queen. Those, who have travelled in any one of these trains, have praised the Indian Railways, attendants of the coaches and other staff. These proud messengers of warmth and Indian hospitality take adequate care of visitors are various railway stations and transmit points. In India, numbers of tourist are increasing every year due to increase in the disposable income. Railway has a tourism wing which tries to satisfy the need of these tourist but still general public is not much aware various initiatives taken. Tourist are still competing with the general traveler to get a seat in rail instead of opting for various other special offers provided by rail tourism. We have an opportunity to start new route and promote both old as well as new routes by formulating a marketing plan for this.