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Villa Savoye From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
View of the west and south facades of the via!
Add"e(( 82, Rue de Villiers
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Cent#e des 3onu3ents nationau4
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Villa Savoye (French pronunciation: vwa=) is a modernist villa in Poissy, in the outskirts of Paris, France. It as desi!ned "y Sissarchitects #e $or"usier and Pierre %eanneret, and "uilt "eteen &' and &'*& . +*
- manifesto of #e $or"usiers /five points/ of ne architecture, the villa is representative of the "ases of modern architecture, and is one of the most easily reco!ni0a"le and renoned e1amples of the International style.
2ri!inally "uilt as a country r etreat on "ehest of the Savoye family, the house fell into disuse after &'34, and entered a state of disrepair durin! World War II. It passed on to "e property of the French state in &'5, and after survivin! several plans of demolition, it as desi!nated as an official French historical monument in &'65 (a rare occurrence, as #e $or"usier as still livin! at the time). It as thorou!hly renovated from &'5 to &''7, and under the care of the $entre des monuments nationau1, the refur"ished house is no open to visitors year8round. +3 +5
9y the end of the &'4s $or"usier as already an internationally knon architect. is "ook Vers une Architecture had "een translated into several lan!ua!es, his ork ith the $entrosoyu0 in ;osco involved him ith the s International d-rchitecture ;oderne ($I-;) and as "ecomin! knon as a champion of modern architecture. +6
?he villas desi!ned "y $or"usier in the early part of the &'4s demonstrated hat he t ermed the /precision/ of architecture, here each feature of the desi!n needed to "e @ ustified in desi!n and ur"an terms. is ork in the later part of the decade, includin! his desi!ns ur"an for -l!iers "e!an "e more free8form. +7
of the commission
Pierre and Amilie Savoye approached $or"usier a"out "uildin! a country home in Poissy in the sprin! of &'. ?he site as on a !reen field on an otherise ooded plot of land ith a ma!nificent landscape vie to the nor th est that corresponded ith the approach to the site alon! the road. 2ther than an initial "rief prepared "y Amile + for a summer house, space for cars, an e1tra "edroom and a caretakers lod!e,
$or"usier had such freedom ith the @o" that he as only limited "y his on architectural palette. e "e!an ork on the [email protected] in Septem"er &'. is initial ideas ere those that eventually manifested themselves in the final "uildin! "ut "eteen -utumn &' and Sprin! &'' he undertook a series of alter natives that ere influenced primarily "y the Savoyes concern a"out cost. +' ?he eventual solution to this pro"lem as to r educe the volume of the "uildin! "y movin! the master "edroom don to the fir st floor and reducin! the !rid spacin! don from 5 metres to 3.75 metres. +&4
Astimates of the cost in Fe"ruary &'' ere appro1imately half a million Francs, althou!h this e1cluded the cost of t he lod!e and the landscapin! elements (almost tice the ori!inal "ud!et). ?he [email protected] as tendered in Fe"ruary ith contracts aarded i n ;arch &''. $han!es made to the desi!n hilst the [email protected] as "ein! "uilt includin! an amendment to t he storey hei!ht and the e1clusion and then re8 introduction of the chauffeurs accommodation led to the costs risi n! to appro1imately 44,444 Francs. -t the time the [email protected] start ed on site no desi!n ork had "een done on the lod!e and the final desi!n as only presented to the client in %une &''. ?he desi!n as for a dou"le lod!e "ut this as reduced to a sin!le lod!e as the costs ere too hi!h . +&& -lthou!h construction of the hole house as complete ithin a year it as not ha"ita"le until &'*&.+&
?he Villa Savoye is pro"a"ly $or"usiers "est knon "uildin! from the &'4s, it had enormous influence on international modernism. +&* It as desi!ned addressin! his em"lematic /Five Points/, the "asic tenets in his ne architectural aesthetic: +3
Support of !round8level pilotis, elevatin! the "uildin! from the earth and alloed an e1tended continuity of the !arden "eneath.
Functional roof, servin! as a !arden and terrace, reclaimin! for nature the land occupied "y the "uildin!.
Free floor plan, relieved of load8"earin! alls, alloin! alls to "e placed freely and only here aesthetically needed.
#on! hori0ontal indos, providin! illumination and ventilation.
Freely8desi!ned facades, servin! as only as a skin of the all and indos and unconstrained "y load8"earin! considerations.
Cnlike his earlier ton villas $or"usier as a"le to carefully desi!n all four sides of the Villa Savoye in r esponse to the vie and the orientation of the sun. 2n the !round floor he placed the main ent rance hall, ramp and stairs, !ara!e, chauffeur and maids rooms. -t first floor the master "edroom, the sons "edroom, !uest "edroom, kitchen, salon and e1ternal terraces. ?he salon as orientated to the north est hilst the terrace faced t he south. ?he sons "edroom faced the south east and the kitchen and service terrace ere on the north east. -t second floor level ere a series of sculpted spaces that formed a solarium. +&3
?he plan as set out usin! the principle ratios of the Dolden section: in this case a sEuare divided into si1teen eEual parts, e1tended on to sides to incorporate the [email protected]! faades and then fur ther divided to !ive the position of the ramp and the entrance. +&5
In his "ook Vers une Architecture $or"usier e1claimed /the motor car is an o"@ect ith a simple function (to travel) and complicated aims (comfort, resistance, appearance)G/.+&6 ?he house, desi!ned as a second residence and sited as it as outside Paris as desi!ned ith the car in mind. ?he sense of mo"ility that the car !ave translated into a feelin! of movement that is inte!ral to the understandin! of the "uildin!. +&7
?he approach to the house as "y car, past the caretakers lod!e and eventually under the "uildin! itself. Aven the curved arc of the
industrial !la0in! to the !round floor entrance as determined "y the turnin! circle of a car. Bropped off "y the chauffeur, the car proceeded around the curve to park in t he !ara!e. ;eanhile the occupants entered the house on a1is into the main hall throu!h a portico of flankin! columns.+&
?he four columns in the entrance hall seemin!ly direct the visitor up the r amp. ?his ramp, that can "e seen from almost everyhere in the house continues up to the first floor livin! area and salon "efore continuin! e1ternally from the first floor roof terrace up to the second floor solarium.+&' ?hrou!hout his career $or"usier as interested in "rin!in! a feelin! of sacredness into the act of dellin! and acts such as ashin! and eatin! ere !iven si!nificance "y their positionin!. +4 -t the Villa Savoye the act of cleansin! is represented "oth "y the sink in the entrance hall+& and the cele"ration of the health8!ivin! properties of the sun in the solarium on the roof hich is !iven si!nificance "y "ein! the culmination of ascendin! the ramp . +
$or"usiers piloti perform a num"er of functions around the house, "oth inside and out. 2n the to lon!er elevations they are flush ith the face of the faade and imply heaviness and support, "ut on the shorter sides they are set "ack !ivin! a floatin! effect that emphasises the hori0ontal feelin! of the house. ?he ide strip indo to the first floor terrace has to "a"y piloti to support and stiffen the all a"ove. -lthou!h these piloti are in a similar plane to the lar!er columns "elo a false perspective hen vieed from outside the house !ives the impression that they are further into the house than they actually are. +*
?he Villa Savoye uses the hori0ontal ri""on indos found in his earlier villas. Cnlike his contemporaries, $or"usier often chose to use tim"er indos rather than metal ones. It has "een su!!ested that this is "ecause he as interested in !lass for its planar properties and that the set8"ack position of the !lass in the tim"er frame allo ed the faade to "e seen as a series of parallel planes. +3
Pro"lems ith the Savoyes caused "y all the reEuests for additional payment from the contractors f or all the chan!es ere compounded "y the reEuirement for early repairs to the ne house. Aach autumn the Savoyes suffered pro"lems ith rainater leaks throu!h the roof. +5 ?he Savoyes continued to live in the house until &'34, leavin! durin! World War II. It as occupied tice durin! the ar: first "y the Dermans 8 hen it as used as a hay store+6 8 and then "y the -mericans, ith "oth occupations dama!in! the "uildin! severely. ?he Savoyes returned to their estate after the ar, "ut, no lon!er in position to live as they had done "efore the ar, they a"andoned the house a!ain shortly after. ?he villa as e1propriated "y of the to n of Poissy in &'5, hich first used it as a pu"lic youth center and later considered demolishin! it to make ay for a schoolhouse comple1. Protest from architects ho felt the house should "e saved, and the intervention of
$or"usier himself, spared the house from demolition. - first attempt of renovation as "e!un in &'6* "y architect %ean Be"uisson, despite opposition from $or"usier. ?he villa as added to the French re!ister of historical monuments in &'65, "ecomin! the fi rst modernist "uildin! desi!nated as historical monument in France, and also the first to "e the o"@ect of renovation hile its architect as still livin!. In &'5, a thorou!h state8funded restoration process, led "y architect %ean8#ouis VHret, as undertaken, "ein! completed in &''7. ?he restoration included structural and surface repairs to the facades and terraces, the installation of li!htin! and security cameras, and the reinstatement of some of the ori!inal fi1tures and fittin!s. +3+7
?he southern hemisphere /shado/ of the Villa Savoye, in $an"erra, -ustralia
?he Villa Savoye as a very influential "uildin! of the &'*4s and imitations of it can "e found all over the orld. + ?he "uildin! featured in to hu!ely influential "ooks of the ti me: itchcock and %ohnsons The International Style pu"lished in &'* and F. <. S. orkes The Modern House pu"lished in &'*3, as ell as the second volume of $or"usiers on series The Complete Works. In his &'37 essay The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa, $olin
?he freedom !iven to $or"usier "y the Savoyes resulted in a house that as !overned more "y his five principles than any reEuirements of the occupants. Bespite this, it as the last time this happened in such a complete ay and the house marked the end of a phase in his desi!n thinkin! as ell as "ein! the last of a series of "uildin!s dominated "y the colour hite. +*4
$riticism has "een levelled at $or"usiers five points of architecture from a !eneral point of vie and these apply specifically to the Villa Savoye in terms of :+*&
Support of !round8level pilotis 8 the piloti tended to "e sym"olic rather than representative of actual structure.
Functional roof 8 poor detailin! in this case led to the roof leakin!.
-fter the Villa Savoye $or"usiers e1perimentation ith Surrealism informed his desi!n for the 9eiste!ui apartments, "ut his ne1t villa desi!n, for ;ademoiselle ;androt near ?oulon had a re!ionalist a!enda and relied on local stone for its finish.+*
?he est in! of the -ustralian Institute of -"ori!inal and ?orres Strait Islander Studies in $an"erra desi!ned "y -shton
Pictures of the interior and e1terior of the villa "y the 9oston $olle!e
Vie pa!e ratin!s
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$ate!ories: ouses in France R 9uildin!s and structures in velines R #e $or"usier "uildin!s R ;odernist architecture in France R International style architecture R
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